World War II Casualties

 
 
                                               
                                                                             civilian             estimated 
country                     killed, died                      prisoners      deaths due           total 
                            of wounds, or       wounded         or           to war               deaths 
                            in prison{1}                      missing{2} 
 
 
Allied Powers 
  Belgium                       12,000          --             --            76,000               88,000 
  Brazil                           943           4,222         --            --                    1,000 
  British Commonwealth         373,372         475,047        251,724{3}     92,673              466,000 
    Australia                   23,365          39,803         32,393        --                   24,000 
    Canada                      37,476          53,174         10,888        --                   38,000 
    India                       24,338          64,354         91,243        --                   -- 
    New Zealand                 10,033          19,314         10,582        --                   10,000 
    South Africa                 6,840          14,363         16,430        --                    7,000 
    United Kingdom             264,443         277,077        213,919        92,673{4}           357,000 
    Colonies                     6,877           6,972         22,323        --                    7,000 
  China{5}                   1,310,224       1,752,951        115,248        --                   -- 
  Czechoslovakia{6}             10,000          --             --           215,000              225,000 
  Denmark                        1,800          --             --             2,000{7}             4,000 
  France{8}                    213,324         400,000         --           350,000              563,000 
  Greece{9}                     88,300          --             --           325,000              413,000 
  Netherlands                    7,900           2,860         --           200,000              208,000 
  Norway                         3,000          --             --             7,000               10,000 
  Poland{10}                   123,178         236,606        420,760     5,675,000            5,800,000 
  Philippines                   27,000          --             --            91,000              118,000 
  United States{11}            292,131         671,801        139,709         6,000              298,000 
  U.S.S.R.{12}              11,000,000          --             --         7,000,000           18,000,000 
  Yugoslavia                   305,000         425,000         --         1,200,000            1,505,000 
Axis Powers 
  Bulgaria{13}                  10,000          --             --            10,000               20,000 
  Finland                       82,000          50,000         --             2,000               84,000 
  Germany{14}                3,500,000       5,000,000      3,400,000       780,000            4,200,000 
  Hungary{13}                  200,000          --            170,000       290,000              490,000 
  Italy{15}                    242,232          66,000        350,000       152,941              395,000 
  Japan                      1,300,000{16}   4,000,000        810,000       672,000            1,972,000 
  Romania{13}                  300,000          --            100,000       200,000              500,000 
 
{1}Figures for deaths, insofar as possible, exclude those who died of natural causes or were suicides. {2}As far as possible the 
figures in this column exclude those who died in captivity. {3}Figures for all Commonwealth nations include those still missing 
in 1946, some of whom may be presumed dead. {4}This figure comprises 60,595 killed in aerial bombardment, 30,248 in the 
merchant marine service, 624 in women's auxiliary services, and 1,206 in the Home Guard. {5}The figures for China comprise 
casualties of the Chinese Nationalist forces during 1937-45, as reported in 1946, and do not include figures for local armies 
and Communists. Estimates of 2,200,000 military dead and 22,000,000 civilian deaths appear in some compilations but are of 
doubtful accuracy. {6}Czech military figures include only those who fought on the Allied side, not Sudeten Germans and others 
who served in the German Army. {7}Includes merchant marine personnel who served with Allies. {8}French military casualties 
include those dead from all causes in the campaign of 1939-40, those of Free French, of rearmed French units that fought 
with Allies during 1942-45, and of French units that fought with Axis forces in Syria and North Africa during 1941-42 (1,200 
dead). {9}These figures released in 1946 are possibly too high. Merchant seamen are included with military dead. {10}Military 
figures drawn from statement released by Polish government in 1946 and include casualties in the campaign of 1939, those of 
the underground, of Polish forces serving with British and Soviet armies, and those incurred in the Warsaw uprising. Civilian 
casualty figures, which include 3,200,000 Jews, are based on this statement as modified by the calculations of population 
experts. {11}Military figures include those of Army Ground and Air Forces, and those of the Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard. 
There were an additional 115,187 deaths of U.S. servicemen from non-battle causes. Civilians listed in 1946 as dead or 
missing include 5,638 of the merchant marine service. {12}Available estimates of Soviet casualties vary widely. A Soviet officer 
who served with the high command in Berlin and left the Soviet service in 1949 placed total military losses at 13,600,000-- 
8,500,000 dead or missing in battle; 2,600,000 dead in prison camps; 2,500,000 died of wounds--and estimated civilian 
casualties at 7,000,000. These figures have been widely accepted in Germany, but most U.S. compilations, based on Soviet 
announcements, list 6,000,000 to 7,500,000 battle deaths. Calculations made on the basis of population distribution by age and 
sex in the 1959 U.S.S.R. census give some credence to the higher figures, for they seem to indicate losses of from 15,000,000 to 
20,000,000 males of military age in World War II. The figures used here are a compromise estimate, not intended to obscure 
the fact that Soviet casualties are, in reality, unknown in the West. {13}Estimates based on fragmentary data. {14}Military 
estimates include men from outside Germany who served with the German armed forces and are based on the assumption 
that about 1,000,000 of the 1,250,000 men still listed as missing in Soviet territory in 1955 were dead. In addition, perhaps 
250,000 military personnel died of natural causes, committed suicide, or were executed. Civilian figures are for Germany and 
Austria only, and they do not include an estimated 2,384,000 German deaths during 1944-46 resulting from Soviet invasion 
and forced transfers of population in the eastern provinces given to Poland after the war. {15}Figures for dead include those 
listed as still missing in compilation made by the Italian government in 1952 (131,419 military personnel and 3,651 civilians), 
but not 49,144 military deaths from natural causes or suicide. Known dead from enemy action amounted to 110,823, making 
a total of 159,957 military deaths from all causes if the missing are not included. Of this number, 92,767 occurred before the 
1943 Armistice, 67,190 afterward. {16}Based on an estimate of 1,600,000 total military deaths on the assumption that about 
half of those listed as missing in Soviet territory in 1949 were dead. About 300,000 of these probably resulted from causes not 
related to battle.