LATE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD

Dynasty 0 (Terminal Nagada): 3250-3050

About 9-13 kings ruling from Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt. The last four have identifiable (although not always legible) names:
. . . .    
Horus "Scorpion"    
Horus Zekhen?/Ka? first king buried at Abydos  
Horus Ro Abydos tomb B 1+2  
Horus Narmer "Catfish"  

 


ARCHAIC PERIOD
(a.k.a. EARLY DYNASTIC)

 

Dynasty I: 3050-2857

 

Horus Aha Meni 3050-3016
Horus Djer Iti 3016-2970
Horus Wadji Iterti? 2970-2963
Horus Dewen Khasti/Zemti? 2963-2949
Horus Andjib Merpibia? 2949-2897
Horus Semerkhet Iri-Nebti 2897-2889
Horus Qa'a Qa'a-Nebti 2889-2859
Horus Ba? (sequence uncertain)  
Horus Seneferka (sequence uncertain) 2859-2857
Horus [. . .] (sequence uncertain)  

 

Dynasty II: 2857-2705

 

Horus Hetepsekhemwy Hetep-Nebty 2857 -  
Horus Nebre     - 2815
Horus Ninetjer Ninetjer-Nebty 2815 - 2778
Horus Weneg? Weneg-Nebty 2778 - 2772
Sened   2772 -  
Nubnefer     - 2751
Seth Peribsen   2751 - 2743
Horus Sekhemib(-perenma'at)   2743 - 2732
Horus Khasekhem (= same person as the next king)      
         
Horus-Seth Khasekhemwy(-hetep- netjerwyimef) 2732 - 2705

 


OLD KINGDOM

Dynasty III: 2705-2630

 

Horus Nekhtza (Za) Nebka I 2705-2687
Horus Netjerikhet (Djoser) 2687-2667
Horus Sekhemkhet (Djeser-Teti) 2667-2660
Horus Khaba   2660-2654
Horus Qahedjet Huni 2654-2630

Dynasty IV: 2630-2524

 

Snefru   2630-2606
(Khnum-)Khufwi (Khufu/"Cheops") 2606-2583
Radjedef (Djedefre) 2583-2575
Khafre ("Chephren") 2575-2550
Nebka II   2550-2548
Menkaure ("Mycerinus") 2548-2530
Shepseskaf   2530-2526
[Interregnum?]   2526-2524

Dynasty V: 2524 2400

Userkaf   2524-2517
Sahure   2517-2505
Neferirkare I Kakai   2505-2495
Shepseskare Izi?   2495-2488
Neferefre (Raneferef?) 2488-2477
Niuserre Ini   2477-2466
Menkauhor Ikauhor   2466-2458
Djedkare Izezi   2458-2430
Unis   2430-2400

Dynasty VI: 2400-2250?

Teti   2400 - 2390
Pepi I   2390 -  
Userkare (userper?)   - 2382
Pepi I (again!) 2382 - 2361
Mernere I Nemtyemzaf   2361 - 2355
Pepi II   2355 - 2261
Mernere II Nemtyemzaf   2261 - 2260
Queen Nitocris   2260 - 2250?

Dynasty VII: 2250?-2230

A group of 10 kings are recorded in the Abydos kinglist but are omitted in the Turin Canon of Kings (a Netjerkare [Abydos] = Neitiqerti [Turin]). Contemporary sources record the prenomens: Neferkare II . . . . . Sekhemkare . . . . . Wadjkare (sequence of rule uncertain).

Dynasty VIII: 2230-2213

Six kings, the last 4 of which are known from contemporary sources:
. . . .    
Qakare Ibi   2222-2220
Neferkaure (= Imhotep?) 2220-2216
Neferkauhor Kapuibi (= Iti?) 2216-2214
Neferirkare II   2214-2213

The attribution of the nomens Imhotep and Iti (from graffiti in the Wadi Hammamat) is very uncertain. Neferkaure is generally identified with Horus Kha[bau?] and Neferirkare II with Horus Demedjibtawy of the Coptus Decrees, but this is uncertain. Horus Netjeribau definitely is Neferkauhor.

 

 


FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Dynasty IX: 2213-ca. 2175

Four kings who ruled at Heracleopolis and were vaguely recognized throughout Egypt. Their sequence is not clear:

 

Meryibre Akhtoy (= the first or second king?) 2213 -  
. . . .        
Neferkare V (= the third king) ca. 2185 -  
. . . .     - 2175

Dynasty X: ca. 2175-ca. 2035

Fourteen Heracleopolitans who ruled the north and fought the Thebans of contemporary Dynasty XI until defeated by Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II between 2047 and 2022. Six kings are attested in contemporary sources:

 

. . . .   ca. 2175    
Nebkaure Akhtoy (father of Merikare?)      
Merikare (contemporary with latter ca. 2075    
  part of reign of Wahankh Inyotef I)      

 

These others cannot be dated even approximately:

 

Meri[. . .]re Akhtoy (different from "Merihathor" and founder of Dynasty X)  
Wahkare Akhtoy    
Khui (on a fragment from Dara)  
Iytjenu (part of a Dyn. X personal name from Saqqara)  

Dynasty XI: 2134-1991

In many traditional chronologies, Theban Dynasty XI is included in the Middle Kingdom, not the First Intermediate Period. However, in recent times this notion has been revised among certain Egyptologists. The dynasty existed about 143 years, of which 99 years were spent in a state of civil war with the kingdom divided and only 44 years with the kindom united in relative peace. Importantly, those final 44 years were a period of political consolidation and nation-building, which only came to fruition at the beginning of Dynasty XII. It is unjustifiable then to consider Dynasty XI as the start of the Middle Kingdom.

 

Horus Tepi-'o Mentuhotep I   2134 -
Horus Sehertawy Inyotef I     - 2118
Horus Wahankh Inyotef II   2118 - 2069
Horus Nekhtnebtepnefer Inyotef III   2069 - 2061
Horus Sankhibtawy        
Horus Daikhasut   }Mentuhotep II
Horus Nebhedjet } Nebhepetre 2061 - 2010
Horus Sematawy
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III   2010 - 1998
Qakare Inyotef IV (sequence uncertain)      
Iyibre-Khent (sequence uncertain)      
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV     - 1991

 


MIDDLE KINGDOM

Dynasty XII: 1991-1784

Amenemhat I   1991-1962
Senwosret I   1971-1928
Amenemhat II   1929-1895
Senwosret II   1897-1878
Senwosret III   1878-1842
Amenemhat III   1842-1794
Amenemhat IV   1797-1788
Queen Sebeknefru   1788-1784

Dynasty XIII: 1784-1668

At least 65 kings who ruled over all of Egypt for 116 years until about 1720 when they lost the Delta to invading Asiatics. The political capital was at Itjy-tawy, and the dynasty was recognized in the far south as late as ca. 1675. Only Neferhotep I, his son Sihathor and Neferhotep's brother, Sebekhotep IV, were related by blood. Some kings were of lower-class or even foreign origin. Only kings attested in contemporary records are listed here.

 

Khutawyre Wegaf   1784 - 1782
Sekhemkare Amenemhat-sunebef   1782 -  
Sekhemre-khutawy (Pentjini?)   - 1772
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V   1772 - 1770
Sehetepibre   1770 - 1769
Sankhibre Ameni-Inyotef Amenemhat VI   1769 -  
Hetepibre Qemau-si-Harnedj-heryotef        
[. . .] Ameni-Qemau        
[. . .] Khuyoqer        
Kha'ankhre Sebekhotep I     - 1764
Awybre Hor I   1764 -  
Sedjefakare Kay Amenemhat VII        
Sekhemre-khutawy Sebekhotep II        
Userkare        
Nimaatre-khaenre Khendjer (Asiatic King "Pig")      
Smenekhkare Mermesha        
Nerkare [. . .]     - 1754
Sekhemre-sewadjtawy Sebekhotep III   1754 - 1751
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I   1751 - 1740
Khakare? Sihathor     1740  
Khaneferre Sebekhotep IV   1740 - 1730
Wahibre Ibya   1725 - 1714
Merneferre Iy ("Ay") 1714 - 1700
Merhetepre Sebekhotep VI   1700 - 1698
Mersekhemre Neferhotep II   1698 -  
Merkaure Sebekhotep VII   1693 -  

The following kings probably date to the last 25 years of Dynasty XIII. Their sequence is uncertain:

 

Seneferibre Senwosret IV    
Merankhrek Mentuhotep V    
Djedankhre Mentuemsaf    
Djedhetepre    
Djedneferre (Dedumose?)    
Sewahenre Senebmiu    
Sekhemre-sankhtawy Neferhotep III    
Sekhemre-seusertawy Sebekhotep VIII    
Mershepesre Ini    
[. . .] Mentuwoser    
Menkhaure Sena'aib    
Sekhemre-neferkhau Wepwawetemsaf    

 


SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

 

Dynasty XIV: 1720-1665

Perhaps as many as 76 kings who ruled in Xois in the Delta. Only one is attested in contemporary sources. He reigned less than one year and left his name on two monuments at Avaris in the Delta:

 

Nehesi   ca. 1720

The other kings names are recorded in subsequent Egyptian lists. Reliable dates cannot be established for them. Was Dynasty XIV a catch-all for a number of small Delta principalities?

 

Khatire Sekhem[...]re Shemsi
Nebfawre Kakemure Meni[...]
Sehabre Neferibre Werqa
Merdjefare Kha[...]re [...]kare
Sewadjkare Aakare [...]kare
Nebdjefare Semen[...]re [...]kare Hap[...]
Webenre Djed[...]re [...]kare [...]nat
[...]djefare Senefer[...]re [...]kare Bebenmi
[...]webenre Menibre Seth
Awibre Djed[...]re Sainu
Heribre Inek[...] Hor
Nebsenre Aa[...] Enibef
Sekheperenre Ap[...] Kherhemwat
Djedkherure Hibi Khuhemwat
Sankhibre Aped Mare Sebekhotep IX
Nefertemkare Hapi  

 

Dynasty XV: 1668-1560

The Hyksos--invaders of apparent North Syrian origin and arriving from Palestine--established their capital at Avaris and maintained direct rule over much of northern Egypt and loose suzerainty over Asiatic and Egyptian vassals (including the Thebans of most of Dynasty XVII) in the rest of the country. Earlier rulers identified in later lists and undatable scarabs include:

 

Sekhaenre Shalik = Salitis  
Maibre Sheshy = Beon  
Meruserenre Yacobher = Apakhnas  

The following Hyksos rulers are attested on contemporary monuments:

 

Seweserenre Khayan Iannas 1630-1610
Aaqenenre (early) } Apopi 1610-1569
Aauserre (later)    
Nebkhepeshre (same as previous king?)  
Aasehre? Khamudi 1569-1560

 

Dynasty XVI: 1665-1565

Hyksos vassals in Lower and Middle Egypt concurrent with Dynasties XV and XVII. All contemporary attestations are on scarabs; none can be dated precisely. Some bear Egyptian names; many have clearly Semitic names:

 

Saket Aahetepre Seneferankhre Apopi
Wadjed Yakboam Anathher
Qar Yoam Semqen
Niraka 'Am Useranath
Nubuserre Yakbaal Nebmaatre
Khauserre Nubankhre  

 

Dynasty XVII: 1668-1570

Current usage restricts this dynasty to the Theban contemporaries of the Hyksos (Manetho included other Hyksos vassals). They ruled as far as Abydos and had extended their domain to Cusae under Ta 'o II, then to the head of the Delta under Kamose. Almost all are attested in contemporary sources:

 

Nubkheperre Inyotef V   1668 - 1663
Sekhemre-wahkhau Rahotep   1663 - 1660
Sekhemre-wadjkhau Sebekemsaf I   1660 - 1644
Sekhemre-sementawy Djehuti   1644 - 1643
Sankhenre Mentuhotep VI   1643 - 1642
Sewadjenre Nebiryerau I   1642 - 1623
Neferkare Nebiryerau II     1623  
Seweserenre Senwosret V   1622 - 1610
Sekhemre-shedtawy Sebekemsaf II   1610 - 1601
Sekhemre-wepma'at Inyotef VI   1601 - 1596
Sekhemre-herherma'at Inyotef VII     1596  
Senekhtenre Ta'o (Djehuti'o) I   1596 - 1591
Seqenenre Ta'o (Djehuti'o) II   1591 - 1576
Wadjkheperre Kamose   1576 - 1570

 


NEW KINGDOM

Dynasty XVIII: 1570-1293

 

Ahmose I 1570-1546
Amenhotep I 1551-1524
Tuthmosis I 1524-1518
Tuthmosis II 1518-1504
Tuthmosis III 1504-1450
Queen Hatshepsut 1503/1498-1483
Amenhotep II 1453-1419
Tuthmosis IV 1419-1386
Amenhotep III 1386-1349
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten 1350-1334
Smenkhkare 1336-1334
Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun 1334-1325
Ay 1325-1321
Horemheb 1321-1293

 

Dynasty XIX: 1293-1185

 

Ramesses I   1293-1291
Seti I   1291-1279
Ramesses II   1279-1212
Merneptah   1212-1202
Amenmesse   1202-1199
Seti II   1199-1193
Ramesses/Merneptah-Siptah   1193-1187
Queen Tawosret   1193-1185
[Interregnum?] Chancellor Bay 1185

 

Dynasty XX: 1185-1070

 

Setnakht   1185-1182
Ramesses III   1182-1151
Ramesses IV   1151-1145
Ramesses V (Amenherkhepeshef) 1145-1141
Ramesses VI (Amenherkhepeshef) 1141-1134
Ramesses VII (Setherkhepshef) 1134 1133
Ramesses VIII (Amenyotef) 1133-1126
Ramesses IX (Khaemwese) 1126-1108
Ramesses X (Amenherkhepeshef) 1108-1098
Ramesses XI (Khaemwese) 1098-1070
Era of "Repeating of Births"   1080-1070

 


THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

 

Dynasty XXI: 1070-946

(a) Kings in Tanis:

 

Smendes (Nisubanebdjed) 1070-1044
Neferkare Amenemnisu   1044-1040
Psusennes I   1040-992
Amenemope   994-985
Aakheperre Osochor   985-979
Siamon   979-960
Psusennes II (see also below) 960-946

(b) Rulers in Thebes (HP = High Priest of Amun; K = King):

 

Pinodjem I   HP 1070-1055
    K 1055-1032
Masahart   HP 1055-1047
Djedkhonsefankh   HP 1047-1046
Menkheperre   HP 1046-993
Smendes I   HP 993-991
Pinodjem II   HP 991-970
Psusennes (later he is a king HP 970-946
  in Tanis = Psusennes II) K 960-946

 

Dynasty XXII: 946-712

Libyan kings ruling in Tanis and Bubastis, recognized in all of Egypt until 828, when a rival Libyan dynasty arose in Thebes. In 814 another rival dynasty arose in Leontopolis in the Delta. Dynasty XXII was still recognized in Memphis and parts of the Delta until 735 and intermittently in Thebes until 787/783.

 

Shoshenq I   946 - 916
Osorkon I   916 - 904
Shoshenq II     904  
Takelot I   904 - 890
Osorkon II   890 - 860
Takelot II   860 - 835
Shoshenq III   835 - 783
Pami   783 - 773
Aakheperre Shoshenq V   773 - 735
Aakheperre Osorkon IV   735 - 712

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

In a unique power-sharing arrangement between the royal government and the temple hierarchy, the High Priests of Amun were often appointed from among the royal princes of Dynasties XXI and XXII (until the Thebans established their own Dynasty XXIII in 828). The high priests were the virtual rulers of Thebes, usually autonomous of the royal government in the Delta. While many high priests took on the outward trappings of kingship, most apparently recognized the Egyptian king as a nominal overlord; (n.b., "s." = "son of"):

 

Yuput (s. Shoshenq I)   HP 946 - 910
Shoshenq (s. Osorkon I)   HP 910 - 905
Ewelot (s. Osorkon I)   HP 905 - 898
Smendes II (s. Osorkon I)   HP 898 - 885
Harsiese I (s. HP Shoshenq)   HP 885 - 875
    K 875 - 870
[. . .di. . .] (s. HP/K Harsie)   HP 875 - 870
Nimlot (s. Osorkon II)   HP 870 - 862
Takelot (s. HP Nimlot) -   HP 862 - 850
Osorkon (s. Takelot II)   HP 850 - 835
Harsiese II (s. [. . .di. . .]?)   HP 835 - 816
Osorkon (again; intermittently at        
  Thebes; permanently at El Hiba) HP 816 - 797/87

 

Dynasty XXIII (Thebes): 828-765?

In its earlier years, this dynasty held Thebes only intermittently and presumably had a safer headquarters to the south; after 787, Dynasty XXII is no longer attested at Thebes. See HP, below, for details. By the time of Osorkon III, this dynasty ruled as far north as Heracleopolis.

 

Pedubast I   828-803
Userma'atre-Miamon Shoshenq IV   803-797
Osorkon III   797-767
Takelot III (formerly HP) 771-767
Amenrud   767-?

The High Priests of Amun of this dynasty were:

 

Harsiese II (again) HP 811-808
Takelot II (same as next priest?) HP 807-797
Takelot III (s. Osorkon III) (perhaps intermittently HP 797/787-774
  until death of HP Osorkon)    

 

Dynasty XXIII (Leontopolis): 814-730?

Yuput I   814-790?
. . . . (several rulers?) 790?-735
Yuput II   ca. 735

 

Dynasty XXIII (Hermopolis): 760-665?

 

Thotemhat   760-735
Nimlot (more than one by this name?) 735-665
Pedenemty (attribution is uncertain)  

 

Dynasty XXIII (Heracleopolis): 740-665?

 

Peftjau-auwybast   740-725
"Nakhke" (recorded in Akkadian texts only) ca. 670

Dynasty XXIII (Tanis): 710?-665?

This is Manetho's Dynasty XXIII, which rules at Tanis between the end of Dynasty XXII and the rise of Dynasty XXVI under Psammetichus I. The following kings attested archaeologically at Tanis seem to belong to this group (sequence unknown):

 

Sekhemkare [. . .]    
Shepseskare-Irnere Gemnefkhonsubak    
Neferkare-Pepi [. . .]    
Sehetepib(en)re Pedubast II   ca. 665

 

Dynasty XXV (Kushite Era): 767-656

Nubian kings from Kush contemporary with (and more or less effective overlords of) the petty kings of Dynasties XXII-XXIV. Manetho includes only those who were recognized in Memphis; we add those who were recognized in Thebes. Kashta's rule in Nubia might have begun earlier, and that of Tanwetamani ended later than the dates indicated here.

 

Kashta   767 - 753
Piye (formerly called "Piankhy") 753 - 713
Shabako   713 - 698?
Shebitku   698? - 698
Taharqa   690 - 664
  1st Assyrian invasion   671  
Tanwetamani   664 - 656
  2nd Assyrian invasion   663  

 

Dynasty XXIV: ca. 760-685

A Libyan dynasty of "Great Chiefs of the West" (abbr. GCW), some of whom assumed the title of "King" (abbr. K); contemporary with Kushite Dynasty XXV. After considerable vicissitudes (including falling to the Kushites), members of this family finally managed (with Assyrian help) to displace the Nubians as rulers of Egypt and develop into Dynasty XXVI:

 

Osorkon GCW ca. 760 - 740
Tefnakhte I GCW 740 - 718
Bocchoris K 718 - 712
Tefnakhte II GCW (later king--see below) 712 - 685

 


LATE PERIOD

 

Dynasty XXVI (Saite Era): 685-525

 

Tefnakhte II   685 - 678
Nikauba?   678 - 672
Necho I killed by Tanwetamani 672 - 664
Psammetichus I   664 - 610
  Assyrians abandon Egypt   653  
Necho II   610 - 595
Psammetichus II   595 - 589
Wahibre ("Apries") 589 - 570
Ahmose II ("Amasis") 570 - 526
Psammetichus III   526 - 525

 


Dynasty XXVII (First Persian Domination): 525-332

Egypt was first invaded by the Persians in this period and became a satrapy of the great Persian Empire.

 

Cambyses II   525-522
Darius I   522-486
Egyptian revolt:    
  Seheribre Pedubast III 522-520
Xerxes I   486-465
Artaxerxes I   465-424
Darius II   424-405
Artaxerxes II   405-359

 

Certain Egyptian kings ruled sporadically in revolt during this period; dates uncertain:

In Marea (West of Alexandria):

 

Psammetichus IV    
Inaros (rebel aqainst Artaxerxes I) ca 465?-454
Thanyras (s. Inaros)   after 448
Psammetichus V (perhaps from this region) ca. 445
Psammetichus VI   ca. 400?

In Sais:

 

Amyrtaios I (joined Inaros) ca.465-448
Pausiris (s. Amyrtaios I)   after 448

 


Dynasty XXVIII: 405-399

In this period the Persians were first expelled from Egypt .

 

Amyrtaios II (s. Pausiris)   405-399

 

Dynasty XXIX: 399-380

 

Nepherites I   399-393
Psammuthis   393
Achoris   393-380
Nepherites II   380

 

Dynasty XXX: 380-343

 

Nectanebo I   381-362
Teos (s. Nectanebo I) 3-year coregency with father 365-361
Nectanebo II   361-343

 


Dynasty XXXI (Second Persian Domination): 343-332

Egypt was invaded again and reconquered by the Persians, although at times, they could not fully dominate the entire country.

 

Artaxerxes III Ochus   343-338
Arses   338-336
Darius III Codomanus   336-332

An Egyptian king (of possibly Nubian origin) briefly controlled most of Egypt during the Persian Dynasty XXXI. He was the last native ruler of ancient Egypt:

 

Khababash   338-333

 


GREEK AND ROMAN PERIOD

 

Macedonian Dynasty: 332-304

Three kings consisting of Alexander the Great, his half-brother, and his son--they never resided in Egypt but governed from Babylon, the capital of Alexander's Macedonian Empire. Alexander was said to have been buried in Alexandria, Egypt. In this period, Egypt was directly administered by the satrap, Ptolemy Lagos, the friend of Alexander who later proclaimed himself king of Egypt.

 

Alexander (III) the Great   332-323
Philip Arrhidaeus   323-316
Alexander IV   316-304

 


Ptolemaic Era: 304-30

Dynasty founded by Ptolemy Lagos with its capital at Alexandria. It consisted of 19 kings and queens-regnant, all of pure Macedonian origin; characterized by frequent intermarriage between the king and his sister, often with the queen or queen-mother as coregent ruling with the king. Overweaning ambition and greed in the royal family was the cause of frequent palace coups and assasinations, with kings and despots frequently losing and regaining the throne (all of which tends to confuse the chronology).

 

Ptolemy I Soter I   304 - 284
Ptolemy II Philadelphus   285 - 246
Ptolemy III Euergetes I   246 - 221
Ptolemy IV Philopator   221 - 205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes   205 - 180
revolt in Upper Egypt:        
  Harwennefer 205 - 199
  Ankhwennefer 199 - 186
Ptolemy VI Philometor   180 - 164
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (jointly, then as userper) 170 - 163
Ptolemy VI Philometor (again!) 163 - 145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II1 (again!) 145 - 116
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (brief userper)   145  
revolt in Thebes:        
  Harsiese   131  
Q. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II   116 - 107
Q. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I   107 - 88
Ptolemy IX Soter II   88 - 81
Ptolemy XI Alexander II & Q. Cleopatra Berenike 81 - 80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II     80  
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus   80 - 58
Q. Berenike IV   58 - 55
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus (again!) 55 - 51
Ptolemy XIII & Q. Cleopatra VII   51 - 47
  Julius Caesar arrives in Egypt   48  
Q. Cleopatra VII   51 - 30
Ptolemy XIV & Q. Cleopatra VII   47 - 44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion & Cleopatra VII   44 - 30

 


Roman Era: 30 B.C. - A.D. 395

Egypt was a consular province of the Roman Empire administered in the name of the Roman emperor by a succession of imperial prefects. They were appointed by the emperor and reported directly to him by-passing the Roman Senate. In Egyptian art, religion and iconography, the Roman emperor assumed the traditional role of pharaoh.