Page One Youth

Napoleon In Paris

Out Of Work

The First Italian Campaign

The Egyptian Campaign

Statesman And Lawgiver

The Concordat

Code Napoleon

General Prosperity

Preparations For War With England

Sale Of Louisiana

Establishment Of The Empire

King of Italy

Campaign Of 1805-1806-1807

The Peace Of Tilsit

Napoleon's Empire

Family Affairs

The Berlin Decree

War In The Peninsula

Bonapartes On The Spanish Throne

Disaster In Spain

Alexander And Napoleon In Council

Napoleon At Madrid

Talleyrand's Treachery

The Campaign Of 1809


The Divorce

A New Wife

An Heir To The Crown

The Pope


Evasions Of Blockade

Tilsit Agreement Broken

The Russian Campaign

The Burning Of Moscow

A New Army

Campaign Of 1813

Campaign Of 1814


Ruler Of Island Of Elba

Return To Paris

Hundred Days

Second Abdication

Napoleon's Surrender

Sent To St. Helena

Life In Exile

Death Of Napoleon

Second Funeral Of Napoleon

Related Information

Wellington and Nelson

Napoleon and the French Revolution



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Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte With A Sketch Of Josephine

Book:        Life Of Napoleon

Author:      Tarbell, Ida


Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte With A Sketch Of Josephine

Book:        Life Of Napoleon

Author:      Tarbell, Ida


Chapter VII.


Return Of The Emigres - The Concordat - Legion Of Honor - Code Napoleon


     But there were wounds in the French nation more profound than those

caused by lack of credit, by neglect and corruption.  The body which in

1789 made up France had, in the last ten years, been violently and

horribly wrenched asunder.  One hundred and fifty thousand of the richest,

most cultivated, and most capable of the population had been stripped of

wealth and position, and had emigrated to foreign lands.


     Napoleon saw that if the emigres could be reconciled, he at once

converted a powerful enemy into a zealous friend.  In spite of the

opposition of those who had made the Revolution and gained their positions

through it, he accorded an amnesty to the emigres, which included the

whole one hundred and fifty thousand, with the exception of about one

thousand, and this number, it was arranged, should be reduced to five

hundred in the course of a year.  More, he provided for their wants.  Most

of the smaller properties confiscated by the Revolution had been sold, and

Napoleon insisted that those who had bought them from the state should be

assured of their tenure; but in case a property had not been disposed of,

he returned it to the family, though rarely in full.  In case of forest

lands, not over three hundred and seventy-five acres were given back.

Gifts and positions were given to many emigres, so that the majority were

able to live in ease.


     A valuable result of this policy of reconciliation was the amount of

talent, experience, and culture which he gained for the government.

France had been run for ten years by country lawyers, doctors, and

pamphleteers, who, though they boasted civic virtue and eloquence, and

though they knew their Plutarch and Rousseau by heart, had no practical

sense, and little or no experience.  The return of the emigres gave France

a body of trained diplomats, judges, and thinkers, many of whom were

promptly admitted to the government.


     More serious than the amputation of the aristocracy had been that of

the Church.  The Revolution had torn it from the nation, had confiscated

its property, turned its cathedrals into barracks, its convents and

seminaries into town halls and prisons, sold its lands, closed its schools

and hospitals.  It had demanded an oath of the clergy which had divided

the body, and caused thousands to emigrate.  Not content with this, it had

tried to supplant the old religion, first with a worship of the Goddess of

Reason, afterwards with one of the Supreme Being.


     But the people still loved the Catholic Church.  The mass of them

kept their crucifixes in their houses, told their beads, observed fast

days.  No matter how severe a penalty was attached to the observance of

Sunday instead of the day which had replaced it, called the "decade," at

heart the people remembered it.  "We rest on the decade," said a workman

once, "but we change our shirts on Sunday."


     Napoleon understood the popular heart, and he proposed the

reestablishment of the Catholic Church.  The Revolutionists, even his

warmest friends among the generals, opposed it.  Infidelity was a cardinal

point in the creed of the majority of the new regime.  They not only

rejected the Church, they ridiculed it.  Rather than restore Catholicism,

they advised Protestantism.  "But," declared Napoleon, "France is not

Protestant; she is Catholic."


     In the Council of State, where the question was argued, he said: "My

policy is to govern men as the greatest number wish to be governed. . . .

I carried on the war of Vendee by becoming a Catholic; I established

myself in Egypt by becoming a Mussulman; I won over the priests in Italy

by becoming Ultramontane.  If I governed Jews I should reestablish the

temple of Solomon. . . . It is thus, I think, that the sovereignty of the

people should be understood."


     Evidently this was a very different way of understanding that famous

doctrine from that which had been in vogue, which consisted in forcing the

people to accept what each idealist thought was best, without consulting

their prejudices or feelings.  In spite of opposition, Napoleon's will

prevailed, and in the spring of 1802 the Concordat was signed.  This

treaty between the Pope and France is still in force in France.  It makes

the Catholic Church the state church, allows the government to name the

bishops, compels it to pay the salaries of the clergy, and to furnish

cathedrals and churches for public worship, which, however, remain

national property.  The Concordat provided for the absolution of the

priests who had married in the Revolution, restored Sunday, and made legal

holidays of certain fete days.  This arrangement was not made at the price

of intolerance towards other bodies.  The French government protects and

contributes towards the support of all religions within its bounds,

Catholic, Protestant, Jew, or Mohammedan.  The Concordat was ridiculed by

many in the government and army, but undoubtedly it was one of the most

statesmanlike measures carried out by Napoleon.


     "The joy of the overwhelming majority of France silenced even the

boldest malcontents," says Pasquier; "it became evident that Napoleon,

better than those who surrounded him, had seen into the depths of the

nation's heart."


     It is certain that in reestablishing the Church Napoleon did not

yield to any religious prejudice, although the Catholic Church was the one

he preferred.  It was purely a question of policy.  In arranging the

Concordat he might have secured more liberal measures - measures in which

he believed - but he refused them.


     "Do you wish me to manufacture a religion of caprice for my own

special use, a religion that would be nobody's?  I do not so understand

matters.  What I want is the old Catholic religion, the only one which is

imbedded in every heart, and from which it has never been torn.  This

religion alone can conciliate hearts in my favor; it alone can smooth away

all obstacles."


     In discussing the subject at St. Helena he said to Las Cases:


     "When I came to the head of affairs, I had already formed certain

ideas on the great principles which hold society together.  I had weighed

all the importance of religion; I was persuaded of it and I and resolved

to reestablish it.  You would scarcely believe in the difficulties that I

had to restore Catholicism.  I would have been followed much more

willingly if I had unfurled the banner of Protestantism. . . . It is sure

that in the disorder to which I succeeded, in the ruins where I found

myself, I could choose between Catholicism and Protestantism.  And it is

true that at that moment the disposition was in favor of the latter.  But

outside the fact that I really clung to the religion in which I had been

born I had the highest motives to decide me.  By proclaiming

Protestantism, what would I have obtained?  I should have created in

France two great parties about equal, when I wished there should be longer

but one.  I should have excited the fury of religious quarrels, when the

enlightenment of the age and my desire was to make them disappear

altogether.  These two parties in tearing each other to pieces would have

annihilated France and rendered her the slave of Europe, when I was

ambitious of making her its mistress.  With Catholicism I arrived much

more surely at my great results.  Within, at home, the great number would

absorb the small, and I promised myself to treat with the latter so

liberally that it would soon have no motive for knowing the difference.


     "Without, Catholicism saved me the Pope; and with my influences and

our forces in Italy I did not despair sooner or later, by one way or

another, of finishing by ruling the Pope myself."


     When the Church fell in France, the whole system of education went

down with her.  The Revolutionary governments tried to remedy the

condition, but beyond many plans and speeches little had been done.

Napoleon allowed the religious bodies to reopen their schools, and thus

primary instruction was soon provided again; and he founded a number of

secondary and special schools.  The greatest of his educational

undertakings was the organization of the University.  This institution was

centralized in the head of the state as completely as every other

Napoleonic institution.  It exists to-day but little changed - a most

efficient body, in spite of its rigid state control.  This university did

nothing for woman.


     "I do not think we need trouble ourselves with any plan of

instruction for young females," Napoleon told the Council.  "They cannot

be brought up better than by their mothers.  Public education is not

suitable for them, because they are never called upon to act in public.

Manners are all in all to them, and marriage is all they look to.  In

times past the monastic life was open to women; they espoused God, and,

though society gained little by that alliance, the parents gained by

pocketing the dowry."


     It was with the education of the daughters of soldiers, civil

functionaries, and members of the Legion of Honor, who had died and left

their children unprovided for, that he concerned himself, establishing

schools of which the well-known one at St. Denis is a model.  The rules

were prepared by Napoleon himself, who insisted that the girls should be

taught all kinds of housework and needlework - everything, in fact, which

would make them good housekeepers and honest women.


     The military schools were also reorganized at this time.  Remembering

his own experience at the Ecole Militaire, Napoleon arranged that the

severest economy should be practised in them, and that the pupils should

learn to do everything for themselves.  They even cleaned, bedded, and

shod their own horses.


     The destruction of the old system of privileges and honors left the

government without any means of rewarding those who rendered it a service.

Napoleon presented a law for a Legion of Honor, under control of the

state, which should admit to its membership only those who had done

something of use to the public.  The service might be military,

commercial, artistic, humanitarian; no limit was put on its nature;

anything which helped France in any way was to be rewarded by membership

in the proposed order.  In fact, it was the most democratic distinction

possible, since the same reward was given for all classes of service and

to all classes of people.


     Now the Revolutionary spirt spurned all distinction; and as free

discussion was allowed on the law, a severe arraignment of it was made.

Nevertheless, it passed.  It immediately became a power in the hands of

the First Consul, and such it has remained until to-day in the government.

Though it has been frequently abused, and never, perhaps, more flagrantly

than by the present Republic, unquestionably the French "red button" is a

decoration of which to be proud.


     The greatest civil achievement of Napoleon was the codification of

the laws.  Up to the Revolution, the laws of France had been in a misty,

incoherent condition, feudal in their spirit, and by no means uniform in

their application.  The Constituent Assembly had ordered them revised, but

the work had only been begun.  Napoleon believed justly that the greatest

benefit he could render France would be to give her a complete and

systematic code.  He organized the force for this gigantic task, and

pushed revision with unflagging energy.


     His part in the work was interesting and important.  After the laws

had been well digested and arranged in preliminary bodies, they were

submitted to the Council of State.  It was in the discussion before this

body that Napoleon took part.  That a man of thirty-one, brought up as a

soldier, and having no legal training, could follow the discussions of

such a learned and serious body as Napoleon's Council of State always was,

seems incredible.  In fact, he prepared for each session as thoroughly as

the law-makers themselves.  His habit was to talk over, beforehand

generally with Cambaceres and Portalis, two legislators of great learning

and clearness of judgment, all the matters which were to come up.


     "He examined each question by itself," says Roederer, "inquiring into

all the authorities, times, experiences; demanding to know how it had been

under ancient jurisprudence, under Louis XIV., or Frederick the Great.

When a bill was presented to the First Consul, he rarely failed to ask

these questions: Is this bill complete?  Does it cover every case Why have

you not thought of this?  Is that necessary?  Is it right or useful?  What

is done nowadays and elsewhere?"


     At night, after he had gone to bed, he would read or have read to him

authorities on the subject.  Such was his capacity for grasping any idea,

that he would come to the Council with a perfectly clear notion of the

subject to be treated, and a good idea of its historical development.

Thus he could follow the most erudite and philosophical arguments, and

could take part in them.  He stripped them at once of all conventional

phrases and learned terms, and stated clearly what they meant.  He had no

use for anything but the plain meaning.  By thus going directly to the

practical sense of a thing, he frequently cleared up the ideas of the

revisers themselves.


     In framing the laws, he took care that they should be worded so that

everybody could understand them.  Thus, when a law relating to liquors was

being prepared, he urged that wholesale and retail should be defined in

such a way that they would be definite ideas to the people.  "Pot and pint

must be inserted," he said.  "There is no objection to those words.  An

excise act isn't an epic poem."


     Napoleon insisted on the greatest freedom of speech in the

discussions on the laws, just as he did on "going straight to the point

and not wasting time on idle talk." This clear-headedness, energy, and

grasp of subject, exercised over a body of really remarkable men,

developed the Council until its discussions became famous throughout

Europe.  One of its wisest members, Chancellor Pasquier, says of

Napoleon's direction that "it was of such a nature as to enlarge the

sphere of one's ideas, and to give one's faculties all the development of

which they were capable.  The highest legislative, administrative, and

sometimes even political matters were taken up in it (the Council).  Did

we not see, for two consecutive winters, the sons of foreign sovereigns

come and complete their education in its midst?"


     It was the genius of the head of the state, however, which was the

most impressive feature of the Council of State.  De Molleville, a former

minister of Louis XVI., said once to Las Cases:


     "It must be admitted that your Bonaparte, your Napoleon, was a very

extraordinary man.  We were far from understanding him on the other side

of the water.  We could not refuse the evidence of his victories and his

invasions, it is true; but Genseric, Attila, Alaric had done as much; so

he made more of an impression of terror on me than of admiration.  But

when I came here and followed the discussions on the civil code, from that

moment I had nothing but profound veneration for him.  But where in the

world had he learned all that?  And then every day I discovered something

new in him.  Ah, sir, what a man you had there!  Truly, he was a prodigy."


     The modern reader who looks at France and sees how her University,

her special schools, her hospitals, her great honorary legion, her treaty

with the Catholic Church, her code of laws, her Bank - the vital elements

of her life, in short - are as they came from Napoleon's brain, must ask,

with De Molleville, How did he do it - he a foreigner, born in a half-

civilized island, reared in a military school, without diplomatic or legal

training, without the prestige of name or wealth?  How could he make a

nation?  How could he be other than the barbaric conqueror the English and

the emigres first thought him.


     Those who look at Napoleon's achievements, and are either dazzled or

horrified by them, generally consider his power superhuman.  They call it

divine or diabolic, according to the feeling he inspires in them; but, in

reality, the qualities he showed in his career as a statesman and law-

giver are very human ones.  His stout grasp on subjects; his genius for

hard work; his power of seeing everything that should be done, and doing

it himself; his unparalleled audacity, explain his civil achievements.


     The comprehension he had of questions of government was really the

result of serious thinking.  He had reflected from his first days at

Brienne; and the active interest he had taken in the Revolution of 1789

had made him familiar with many social and political questions.  His

career in Italy, which was almost as much a diplomatic as a military

career, had furnished him an experience upon which he had founded many

notions.  In his dreams of becoming an Oriental law-giver he had planned a

system of government of which he was to be the centre.  Thus, before the

18th Brumaire made him the Dictator of France, he had his ideas of

centralized government all formed, just as, before he crossed the Great

Saint Bernard, he had fought, over and over, the battle of Marengo, with

black- and red-headed pins stuck into a great map of Italy spread out on

his study floor.


     His habit of attending to everything himself explains much of his

success.  No detail was too small for him, no task too menial.  If a thing

needed attention, no matter whose business it was, he looked after it.

Reading letters once before Madame Junot, she said to him that such work

must be tiresome, and advised him to give it to a secretary.


     "Later, perhaps," he said, "Now it is impossible; I must answer for

all.  It is not at the beginning of a return to order that I can afford to

ignore a need, a demand."


     He carried out this policy literally.  When he went on a journey, he

looked personally after every road, bridge, public building, he passed,

and his letters teemed with orders about repairs here, restorations there.

He looked after individuals in the same way; ordered a pension to this

one, a position to that one, even dictating how the gift should be made

known so as to offend the least possible the pride of the recipient.


     When it came to foreign policy, he told his diplomats how they should

look, whether it should be grave or gay, whether they should discuss the

opera or the political situation.


     The cost of the soldiers' shoes, the kind of box Josephine took at

the opera, the style of architecture for the Madeleine, the amount of

stock left on hand in the silk factories, the wording of the laws, all was

his business.


     He thought of the flowers to be scattered daily on the tomb of

General Regnier, suggested the idea of a battle hymn to Rouget de l'Isle,

told the artists what expression to give him in their portraits, what

accessories to use in the battle pieces, ordered everything, verified

everything.  "Beside him," said those who looked on in amazement, "the

most punctilious clerk would have been a bungler."


     Without an extraordinary capacity for work, no man could have done

this.  Napoleon would work until eleven o'clock in the evening, and be up

again at three in the morning.  Frequently he slept but an hour, and came

back as fresh as ever.  No secretary could keep up to him, and his

ministers sometimes went to sleep in the Council, worn out with the length

of the session.  "Come, citizen ministers," he would cry, "we must earn

the money the French nation gives us." The ministers rarely went home from

the meetings that they did not find a half-dozen letters from him on their

tables to be answered, and the answer must be a clear, exact, exhaustive

document.  "Get your information so that when you do answer me, there

shall be no 'buts,' no 'ifs,' and no 'becauses,'" was the rule Napoleon

laid down to his correspondents.


     He had audacity.  He dared do what he would.  He had no conventional

notions to tie him, no master to dictate to him.  The Revolution had swept

out of his way the accumulated experience of centuries - all the habits,

the prejudices, the ways of doing things.  He commenced nearer the bottom

than any man in the history of the civilized world had ever done, worked

with imperial self-confidence, with a conviction that he "was not like

other men;" that the moral laws, the creeds, the conventions, which

applied to them, were not for him.  He might listen to others, but in the

end he dared do as he would.

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