Age Of Fable Or Beauties Of Mythology
Author: Bulfinch, Thomas

Chapter XV: Graeae Or Gray-Maids - Perseus - Medusa - Atlas - Andromeda.

The Graeae And Gorgons.

The Graeae were three sisters who were gray-haired from their birth,
whence their name. The Gorgons were monstrous females with huge teeth like
those of swine, brazen claws, and snaky hair. None of these beings make much
figure in mythology except Medusa, the Gorgon, whose story we shall next
advert to. We mention them chiefly to introduce an ingenious theory of some
modern writers, namely, that the Gorgons and Graeae were only personifications
of the terrors of the sea, the former denoting the strong billows of the wide
open main, and the latter the white-crested waves that dash against the rocks
of the coast. Their names in Greek signify the above epithets.

Perseus And Medusa.

Perseus was the son of Jupiter and Danae. His grandfather Acrisius
alarmed by an oracle which had told him that his daughter's child would be the
instrument of his death, caused the mother and child to be shut up in a chest
and set adrift on the sea. The chest floated towards Seriphus, where it was
found by a fisherman who conveyed the mother and infant to Polydectes, king of
the country, by whom they were treated with kindness. When Perseus was grown
up Polydectes sent him to attempt the conquest of Medusa, a terrible monster
who had laid waste the country. She was once a beautiful maiden whose hair
was her chief glory, but as she dared to vie in beauty with Minerva, the
goddess deprived her of her charms and changed her beautiful ringlets into
hissing serpents. She became a cruel monster of so frightful an aspect that
no living thing could behold her without being turned into stone. All around
the cavern where she dwelt might be seen the stony figures of men and animals
which had chanced to catch a glimpse of her and had been petrified with the
sight. Perseus, favored by Minerva and Mercury, the former of whom lent him
her shield and the latter his winged shoes, approached Medusa while she slept,
and taking care not to look directly at her, but guided by her image reflected
in the bright shield which he bore, he cut off her head, and gave it to
Minerva, who fixed it in the middle of her Aegis.

Milton in his Comus thus alludes to the Aegis: -

"What was that snaky-headed Gorgon-shield
That wise Minerva wore, unconquered virgin,
Wherewith she freezed her foes to congealed stone,
But rigid looks of chaste austerity,
And noble grace that dashed brute violence
With sudden adoration and blank awe!"

Armstrong, the poet of the Art of Preserving Health, thus describes the
effect of frost upon the waters: -

"Now blows the surly North and chills throughout
The stiffening regions, while by stronger charms
Than Circe e'er or fell Medea brewed.
Each brook that wont to prattle to its banks
Lies all bestilled and wedged betwixt its banks,
Nor moves the withered reeds. . .
The surges baited by the fierce North-east,
Tossing with fretful spleen their angry heads,
E'en in the foam of all their madness struck
To monumental ice.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Such execution,
So stern, so sudden, wrought the grisly aspect
Of terrible Medusa,
When wandering through the woods she turned to stone
Their savage tenants; just as the foaming Lion
Sprang furious on his prey, her speedier power
Outran his haste,
And fixed in that fierce attitude he stands
Like Rage in marble!"

Imitations of Shakspeare.

Perseus And Atlas.

After the slaughter of Medusa, Perseus, bearing with him the head of the
Gorgon, flew far and wide, over land and sea. As night came on, he reached
the western limit of the earth, where the sun goes down. Here he would gladly
have rested till morning. It was the realm of King Atlas, whose bulk
surpassed that of all other men. He was rich in flocks and herds and had no
neighbor or rival to dispute his state. But his chief pride was in his
gardens, whose fruit was of gold, hanging from golden branches, half hid with
golden leaves. Perseus said to him, "I come as a guest. If you honor
illustrious descent, I claim Jupiter for my father; if mighty deeds, I plead
the conquest of the Gorgon. I seek rest and food." But Atlas remembered that
an ancient prophecy had warned him that a son of Jove should one day rob him
of his golden apples. So he answered, "Begone! or neither your false claims
of glory or parentage shall protect you;" and he attempted to thrust him out.
Perseus, finding the giant too strong for him, said, "Since you value my
friendship so little, deign to accept a present;" and turning his face away,
he held up the Gorgon's head. Atlas, with all his bulk, was changed into
stone. His beard and hair became forests, his arms and shoulders cliffs, his
head a summit, and his bones rocks. Each part increased in bulk till he
became a mountain, and (such was the pleasure of the gods) heaven with all its
stars rests upon his shoulders.

Perseus, continuing his flight, arrived at the country of the
Aethiopians, of which Cepheus was king. Cassiopeia his queen, proud of her
beauty, had dared to compare herself to the Sea-Nymphs, which roused their
indignation to such a degree that they sent a prodigious sea-monster to ravage
the coast. To appease the deities, Cepheus was directed by the oracle to
expose his daughter Andromeda to be devoured by the monster. As Perseus
looked down from his aerial height he beheld the virgin chained to a rock, and
waiting the approach of the serpent. She was so pale and motionless that if
it had not been for her flowing tears and her hair that moved in the breeze,
he would have taken her for a marble statue. He was so startled at the sight
that he almost forgot to wave his wings. As he hovered over her he said, "O
virgin, undeserving of those chains, but rather of such as bind fond lovers
together, tell me, I beseech you, your name and the name of your country, and
why you are thus bound." At first she was silent from modesty, and, if she
could, would have hid her face with her hands; but when he repeated his
questions, for fear she might be thought guilty of some fault which she dared
not tell, she disclosed her name and that of her country, and her mother's
pride of beauty. Before she had done speaking, a sound was heard off upon the
water, and the sea-monster appeared, with his head raised above the surface,
cleaving the waves with his broad breast. The virgin shrieked, the father and
mother who had now arrived at the scene, wretched both, but the mother more
justly so, stood by, not able to afford protection, but only to pour forth
lamentations and to embrace the victim. Then spoke Perseus: "There will be
time enough for tears; this hour is all we have for rescue. My rank as the
son of Jove and my renown as the slayer of the Gorgon might make me acceptable
as a suitor; but I will try to win her by services rendered, if the gods will
only be propitious. If she be rescued by my valor, I demand that she be my
reward." The parents consent, (how could they hesitate?) and promise a royal
dowry with her.

And now the monster was within the range of a stone thrown by a skilful
slinger, when with a sudden bound the youth soared into the air. As an eagle,
when from his lofty flight he sees a serpent basking in the sun, pounces upon
him and seizes him by the neck to prevent him from turning his head round and
using his fangs, so the youth darted down upon the back of the monster and
plunged his sword into its shoulder. Irritated by the wound the monster
raised himself into the air, then plunged into the depth; then, like a wild
boar surrounded by a pack of barking dogs, turned swiftly from side to side,
while the youth eluded its attacks by means of his wings. Wherever he can
find a passage for his sword between the scales he makes a wound, piercing now
the side, now the flank, as it slopes towards the tail. The brute spouts from
his nostrils water mixed with blood. The wings of the hero are wet with it,
and he dares no longer trust to them. Alighting on a rock which rose above
the waves, and holding on by a projecting fragment, as the monster floated
near he gave him a death stroke. The people who had gathered on the shore
shouted so that the hills reechoed the sound. The parents, transported with
joy, embraced their future son-in-law, calling him their deliverer and the
savior of their house, and the virgin, both cause and reward of the contest,
descended from the rock.

Cassiopeia was an Aethiopian, and consequently, in spite of her boasted
beauty, black; at least so Milton seems to have thought, who alludes to this
story in his Penseroso, where he addresses Melancholy as the

" - goddess, sage and holy,
Whose saintly visage is too bright
To hit the sense of human sight,
And, therefore, to our weaker view
O'erlaid with black, staid Wisdom's hue.
Black, but such as in esteem
Prince Memnon's sister might beseem,
Or that starred Aethiop queen that strove
To set her beauty's praise above
The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended."

Cassiopeia is called "the starred Aethiop queen" because after her death
she was placed among the stars, forming the constellation of that name. Though
she attained this honor, yet the Sea-Nymphs, her old enemies, prevailed so far
as to cause her to be placed in that part of the heaven near the pole, where
every night she is half the time held with her head downward, to give her a
lesson of humility.

Memnon was an Aethiopian prince, of whom we shall tell in a future

The Wedding Feast.

The joyful parents, with Perseus and Andromeda, repaired to the palace,
where a banquet was spread for them, and all was joy and festivity. But
suddenly a noise was heard of warlike clamor, and Phineus, the betrothed of
the virgin, with a party of his adherents, burst in, demanding the maiden as
his own. It was in vain that Cepheus remonstrated, - "You should have claimed
her when she lay bound to the rock, the monster's victim. The sentence of the
gods dooming her to such a fate dissolved all engagements, as death itself
would have done." Phineus made no reply, but hurled his javelin at Perseus,
but it missed its mark and fell harmless. Perseus would have thrown his in
turn, but the cowardly assailant ran and took shelter behind the altar. But
his act was a signal for an onset by his band upon the guests of Cepheus.
They defended themselves and a general conflict ensued, the old king
retreating from the scene after fruitless expostulations, calling the gods to
witness that he was guiltless of this outrage on the rights of hospitality.

Perseus and his friends maintained for some time the unequal contest; but
the numbers of the assailants were too great for them, and destruction seemed
inevitable, when a sudden thought struck Perseus, - "I will make my enemy
defend me." Then with a loud voice he exclaimed, "If I have any friend here
let him turn away his eyes!" and held aloft the Gorgon's head. "Seek not to
frighten us with your jugglery," said Thescelus, and raised his javelin in act
to throw, and became stone in the very attitude. Ampyx was about to plunge
his sword into the body of a prostrate foe, but his arm stiffened and he could
neither thrust forward nor withdraw it. Another, in the midst of a vociferous
challenge, stopped, his mouth open, but no sound issuing. One of Perseus's
friends, Aconteus, caught sight of the Gorgon and stiffened like the rest.
Astyages struck him with his sword, but instead of wounding, it recoiled with
a ringing noise.

Phineus beheld this dreadful result of his unjust aggression, and felt
confounded. He called aloud to his friends, but got no answer; he touched
them and found them stone. Falling on his knees and stretching out his hands
to Perseus, but turning his head away, he begged for mercy. "Take all," said
he, "give me but my life." "Base coward," said Perseus, "thus much I will
grant you; no weapon shall touch you; moreover you shall be preserved in my
house as a memorial of these events." So saying, he held the Gorgon's head to
the side where Phineus was looking, and in the very form in which he knelt,
with his hands outstretched and face averted he became fixed immovably, a mass
of stone!

The following allusion to Perseus is from Milman's Samor: -

"As 'mid the fabled Libyan bridal stood
Perseus in stern tranquility of wrath,
Half stood, half floated on his ankle-plumes
Out-swelling, while the bright face on his shield
Looked into stone the raging fray; so rose,
But with no magic arms, wearing alone
Th' appalling and control of his firm look,
The Briton Samor; at his rising awe
Went abroad, and the riotous hall was mute."