Emergence of Mesopotamian Civilization
Literary Sources for Mesopotamian History
Achievements of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamian Time Line
Map of Mesopotamia
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Mesopotamia 9000 -
Early Farming Communities 9000-5000
||Beginning cultivation of wild wheat and barley and
domestication of dogs and sheep; inaugurating of change from food
gathering to food producing culture - Karim Shahir in Zagros
||At Jarmo, oldest known permanent settlement: crude mud
houses, wheat grown from seed, herds of goats, sheep, and pigs.
||Migration of northern farmers settle in region from
Babylon to Persian Gulf.
||Hassuna culture introduces irrigation, fine pottery,
permanent dwellings; dominates culture for 1000 years, develops
tradefrom Persian Gulf to Mediterranean.
||Ubaidians develop first divisions of labor, mud brick
villages, first religious shrines. Small temple at Eridu - earliest
example of an offering table and niche for cult object.
||Semitic nomads from Syria and Arabian peninsula invade
southern Mesopotamia, intermingle with Ubaidian population
||Temple at Tepe Gawra built - setting
style for later examples.
||Sumerians settle on banks of Euphrates
||Temple at Eridu - zigguratprototype
assemblies give way to kingships, evolve into hereditary monarchies.
||Kish - leading
pictographs to keep administrative records.
3-D statues, e.g. Warka head.
White Temple - ziggurat traditional design.
Temple at Tell Uqair - mosaic decorations.
cuneiform land sales formal contracts.
Eridu and Kish - simple palaces.
"Standard of Ur" - war-peace plaque, religious statues, gold and
silver artifacts buried in tombs of Ur.
Sumerians of Abu Salabikh - first poetry.
of Sumerian legends, reigns as king of Erech
Abab unites city states which vie for domination for 200 years.
Ur's 3rd. dynasty; dedicates ziggurat at Ur moon-god Nanna, sets up
early law code.
||Gudea, Prince of
Lagsh, art and lit patron,magnificant statues produced in his honor.
and destroy Ur.
Babylonians and Assyrians 1900-500
||Amorites from Syrian desert conquer Sumer.
||Hammurabi asccends Babylonian throne.
||Hammurabi brings most of Mesopotamia
under his control.
||Hammurabi introduces law code.
||Hittite invasion from Turkey ends Hammurabi's dynasty.
||Assyria conquered by Hurrians from Anatolia.
||Bas-relief of baked brick appears as dominant art form
- Karaindash Temple.
||Kurigalzu assumes Babylonian throne
||Nebuchadrezzar I expels Elamites.
||King Tiglath-Pileser I leads Assyria
to new era of power.
||Iron, introduced originally by Hittites, is used
extensively in Assyria for tools and weapons.
||Assyrian empire shattered by Aramaean and Zagros
tribes. 150 Assyrian decline halted by Adadnirari II.
||Assurnasirpal II builds magnificent new capital, Calah,
replacing old capital of Assur, present day Nimrud.
||Tiglath-Pileser II creates great empire extending from
the Persian Gulf to the borders of Egypt.
||Sargon II builds new capitol at Dur-Sharrukin
||Assurbanipal extends empire from Nile to Caucasus
Mountains. Chaldeans and Iranian Medes overrun Assyria -
||Sennacherib's son, Esaraddon, rebuilds Babylon.
||Nebuchadrezzar II rules Neo-Babylonian empire. Razes
Jerusalem, takes Jews into captivity in Babylon.
||Builds "Tower of Babel," temple to Marduk
||Cyrus the Great, Persian warrior and statesman,
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