Map of Mesopotamia
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The International History Project
Literary and other historical sources
The picture offered by the literary tradition of Mesopotamia is clearer but not necessarily historically relevant. The Sumerian king list has long been the greatest focus of interest. This is a literary composition, dating from Old Babylonian times, that describes kingship (nam-lugal in Sumerian) in Mesopotamia from primeval times to the end of the 1st dynasty of Isin. According to the theory--or rather the ideology--of this work, there was officially only one kingship in Mesopotamia, which was vested in one particular city at any one time; hence the change in dynasties brought with it the change of the seat of kingship:
Kish - Uruk - Ur - Awan - Kish - Hamazi - Uruk - Ur - Adab - Mari - Kish -Akshak - Kish - Uruk - Akkad - Uruk - Gutians - Uruk - Ur - Isin
.The king list gives as coming in succession
several dynasties that now are known to have ruled simultaneously. It is a
welcome aid to chronology and history, but, so far as the regnal years are
concerned, it loses its value for the time before the dynasty of Akkad, for here
the lengths of reign of single rulers are given as more than 100 and sometimes
even several hundred years. One group of versions of the king list has adopted
the tradition of the Sumerian Flood story, according to which Kish was the first
seat of kingship after the Flood, whereas five dynasties of primeval kings ruled
before the Flood in Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak. These kings
all allegedly ruled for multiples of 3,600 years (the maximum being 64,800 or,
according to one variant, 72,000 years). The tradition of the Sumerian king list
is still echoed in Berosus.
It is also instructive to observe what the
Sumerian king list does not mention. The list lacks all mention of a dynasty as
important as the 1st dynasty of Lagash (from King Ur-Nanshe to UruKAgina) and
appears to retain no memory of the archaic florescence of Uruk at the beginning
of the 3rd millennium BC.
Besides the peaceful pursuits reflected in art
and writing, the art also provides the first information about violent contacts:
cylinder seals of the Uruk Level IV depict fettered men lying or squatting on
the ground, being beaten with sticks or otherwise maltreated by standing
figures. They may represent the execution of prisoners of war. It is not known
from where these captives came or what form "war" would have taken or how
early-organized battles were fought. Nevertheless, this does give the first,
albeit indirect, evidence for the wars that are henceforth one of the most
characteristic phenomena in the history of Mesopotamia.
Just as with the rule of man over man, with
the rule of higher powers over man it is difficult to make any statements about
the earliest attested forms of religion or about the deities and their names
without running the risk of anachronism. Excluding prehistoric figurines, which
provide no evidence for determining whether men or anthropomorphic gods are
represented, the earliest testimony is supplied by certain symbols that later
became the cuneiform signs for gods' names: the "gatepost with streamers" for
Inanna, goddess of love and war, and the "ringed post" for the moon god Nanna. A
scene on a cylinder seal--a shrine with an Inanna symbol and a "man" in a
boat--could be an abbreviated illustration of a procession of gods or of a
cultic journey by ship. The constant association of the "gatepost with
streamers" with sheep and of the "ringed post" with cattle may possibly reflect
the area of responsibility of each deity. The Sumerologist Thorkild Jacobsen
sees in the pantheon a reflex of the various economies and modes of life in
ancient Mesopotamia: fishermen and marsh dwellers, date palm cultivators,
cowherds, shepherds, and farmers all have their special groups of gods.
Both Sumerian and non-Sumerian languages can
be detected in the divine names and place-names. Since the pronunciation of the
names is known only from 2000 BC or later, conclusions about their linguistic
affinity are not without problems. Several names, for example, have been
reinterpreted in Sumerian by popular etymology. It would be particularly
important to isolate the Subarian components (related to Hurrian), whose
significance was probably greater than has hitherto been assumed. For the south
Mesopotamian city HA.A (the noncommittal transliteration of the signs) there is
a pronunciation gloss "shubari," and non-Sumerian incantations are known in the
language of HA.A that have turned out to be "Subarian.
"There have always been in Mesopotamia
speakers of Semitic languages (which belong to the Afro-Asiatic group and also
include ancient Egyptian, Berber, and various African languages). This element
is easier to detect in ancient Mesopotamia, but whether people began to
participate in city civilization in the 4th millennium BC or only during the 3rd
is unknown. Over the last 4,000 years, Semites (Amorites, Canaanites, Aramaeans,
and Arabs) have been partly nomadic, ranging the Arabian fringes of the Fertile
Crescent, and partly settled; and the transition to settled life can be observed
in a constant, though uneven, rhythm. There are, therefore, good grounds for
assuming that the Akkadians (and other pre-Akkadian Semitic tribes not known by
name) also originally led a nomadic life to a greater or lesser degree.
Nevertheless, they can only have been herders of domesticated sheep and goats,
which require changes of pasturage according to the time of year and can never
stray more than a day's march from the watering places. The traditional nomadic
life of the Bedouin makes its appearance only with the domestication of the
camel at the turn of the 2nd to 1st millennium BC.
The question arises as to how quickly writing spread and who adopted it in about 3000 BC or shortly thereafter. At Kish, in northern Babylonia, almost 120 miles northwest of Uruk, a stone tablet has been found with the same repertoire of archaic signs as those found at Uruk itself. This fact demonstrates that intellectual contacts existed between northern and southern Babylonia. The dispersion of writing in an unaltered form presupposes the existence of schools in various cities that worked according to the same principles and adhered to one and the same canonical repertoire of signs. It would be wrong to assume that Sumerian was spoken throughout the area in which writing had been adopted. Moreover, the use of cuneiform for a non-Sumerian language can be demonstrated with certainty from the 27th century BC.