b. Jan. 8, 1821, Edgefield District, S.C., U.S.d. Jan. 2, 1904, Gainesville, Ga.
Longstreet was a Confederate officer during the American Civil War.
graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.
(1842), he resigned from the U.S. Army when his native state
seceded from the Union (December 1860); he was made a
brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He fought in the
first and second battles of Bull Run, called First and
Second Manassas by the Confederates (July 1861;
August-September 1862); was a division commander in the
Peninsular Campaign (March-July 1862); and at Antietam
(September 1862) and Fredericksburg (November-December 1862)
commanded what was soon called the I Corps in the Army of
Northern Virginia. Promoted to lieutenant general (1862),
Longstreet participated in the Battle of Gettysburg as Gen.
Robert E. Lee's second in command. His delay in attacking
and his slowness in organizing "Pickett's Charge," his
critics argue, were responsible for the Confederate defeat
at Gettysburg; others, however, place the blame on Lee,
citing his inability to cope with unwilling officers. In
September 1863 he directed the attack at Chickamauga that
broke the Federal lines. He was severely wounded in the
Wilderness Campaign. In November 1864, although with a
paralyzed right arm, he resumed command of his corps. He
surrendered with Lee at Appomattox.
the war he became unpopular in the South--partly because of
his admiration for Pres. Ulysses S. Grant and partly because
he joined the Republican Party. He served as U.S. minister
to Turkey (1880-81) and commissioner of Pacific railways
reminiscences, From Manassas to Appomattox, appeared in