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The Accession of Solomon

Judas Maccabaeus

The Final Dispersion

Great Jewish Revolt One

Great Jewish Revolt Two

Great Jewish Revolt Three

Great Jewish Revolt Four

History Of Judaism


Great Jewish Revolt: Siege And Destruction Of Jerusalem
Author: Josephus

Part II.

What made the Romans so courageous was their usual custom of conquering
and disuse of being defeated, their constant wars, and perpetual warlike
exercises, and the grandeur of their dominion. And what was now their chief
encouragement - Titus, who was present everywhere with them all - for it
appeared a terrible thing to grow weary while Caesar was there, and fought
bravely as well as they did - was himself at once an eye-witness of such as
behaved themselves valiantly, and he was to reward them also. It was,
besides, esteemed an advantage at present to have anyone's valor known by
Caesar; on which account many of them appeared to have more alacrity than
strength to answer it. And now, as the Jews were about this time standing in
array before the wall, and that in a strong body, and while both parties were
throwing their darts at each other, Longinus, one of the equestrian order,
leaped out of the army of the Romans, and leaped into the very midst of the
army of the Jews; and as they dispersed themselves upon this attack, he slew
two of their men of the greatest courage; one of them he struck in his mouth
as he was coming to meet him, the other was slain by him by that very dart
which he drew out of the body of the other, with which he ran this man
through his side as he was running away from him; and when he had done this,
he first of all ran out of the midst of his enemies to his own side.

So this man signalized himself for his valor, and many there were who
were ambitious of gaining the like reputation. And now the Jews were
unconcerned at what they suffered themselves from the Romans, and were only
solicitous about what mischief they could do them; and death itself seemed a
small matter to them, if at the same time they could but kill any one of
their enemies. But Titus took care to secure his own soldiers from harm, as
well as to have them overcome their enemies. He also said that inconsiderate
violence was madness, and that this alone was the true courage that was
joined with good conduct. He therefore commanded his men to take care, when
they fought their enemies, that they received no harm from them at the same
time, and thereby show themselves to be truly valiant men.

And now Titus brought one of his engines to the middle tower of the
north part of the wall, in which a certain crafty Jew, whose name was Castor,
lay in ambush, with ten others like himself, the rest being fled away by
reason of the archers. These men lay still for a while, as in great fear,
under their breastplates; but when the tower was shaken, they arose, and
Castor did then stretch out his hand, as a petitioner, and called for Caesar,
and by his voice moved his compassion, and begged of him to have mercy upon
them; and Titus, in the innocency of his heart, believing him to be in
earnest, and hoping that the Jews did now repent, stopped the working of the
battering ram, and forbade them to shoot at the petitioners, and bid Castor
say what he had a mind to say to him. He said that he would come down, if he
would give him his right hand for his security.

To which Titus replied that he was well pleased with such his agreeable
conduct, and would be well pleased if all the Jews would be of his mind, and
that he was ready to give the like security to the city. Now five of the ten
dissembled with him, and pretended to beg for mercy, while the rest cried out
aloud that they would never be slaves to the Romans, while it was in their
power to die in a state of freedom. Now while these men were quarrelling for
a long while the attack was delayed; Castor also sent to Simon, and told him
that they might take some time for consultation about what was to be done,
because he would elude the power of the Romans for a considerable time. And
at the same time that he sent thus to him, he appeared openly to exhort those
that were obstinate to accept of Titus' hand for their security; but they
seemed very angry at it, and brandished their naked swords upon the
breastworks, and struck themselves upon their breast, and fell down as if
they had been slain. Hereupon Titus, and those with him, were amazed at the
courage of the men; and as they were not able to see exactly what was done,
they admired at their great fortitude and pitied their calamity.

During this interval a certain person shot a dart at Castor, and wounded
him in his nose; whereupon he presently pulled out the dart, and showed it to
Titus, and complained that this was unfair treatment; so Caesar reproved him
that shot the dart, and sent Josephus, who then stood by him, to give his
right hand to Castor. But Josephus said that he would not go to him, because
these pretended petitioners meant nothing that was good; he also restrained
those friends of his who were zealous to go to him. But still there was one
Eneas, a deserter, who said he would go to him. Castor also called to them,
that somebody should come and receive the money which he had with him; this
made Eneas the more earnestly to run to him with his bosom open. Then did
Castor take up a great stone and threw it at him, which missed him, because
he guarded himself against it; but still it wounded another soldier that was
coming to him. When Caesar understood that this was a delusion, he perceived
that mercy in war is a pernicious thing, because such cunning tricks have
less place under the exercise of greater severity. So he caused the engine
to work more strongly than before, on account of his anger at the deceit put
upon him. But Castor and his companions set the tower on fire when it began
to give way, and leaped through the flame into a hidden vault that was under
it, which made the Romans further suppose that they were men of great
courage, as having cast themselves into the fire.

Now Caesar took this wall there on the fifth day after he had taken the
first; and when the Jews had fled from him he entered into it with a thousand
armed men, and those of his choice troops, and this at a place where were the
merchants of wool, the braziers, and the market for cloth, and where the
narrow streets led obliquely to the wall. Wherefore, if Titus had either
demolished a larger part of the wall immediately, or had come in, and,
according to the law of war, had laid waste what was left, his victory would
not, I suppose, have been mixed with any loss to himself. But now, out of
the hope he had that he should make the Jews ashamed of their obstinacy by
not being willing, when he was able, to afflict them more than he needed to
do, he did not widen the breach of the wall, in order to make a safer retreat
upon occasion, for he did not think they would lay snares for him that did
them such a kindness. When therefore, he came in, he did not permit his
soldiers to kill any of those they caught, nor to set fire to their houses
neither - nay, he gave leave to the seditious, if they had a mind, to fight
without any harm to the people, and promised to restore the people's effects
to them, for he was very desirous to preserve the city for his own sake, and
the Temple for the sake of the city.

As to the people, he had them of a long time ready to comply with his
proposals; but as to the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of
his weakness, and they imagined that he made these proposals because he was
not able to take the rest of the city. They also threatened death to the
people, if they should any one of them say a word about a surrender. They,
moreover, cut the throats of such as talked of a peace, and then attacked
those Romans that were come within the wall. Some of them they met in the
narrow streets, and some they fought against from their houses, while they
made a sudden sally out at the upper gates, and assaulted such Romans as
were beyond the wall, till those that guarded the wall were so affrighted
that they leaped down from their towers and retired to their several camps:
upon which a great noise was made by the Romans that were within, because
they were encompassed round on every side by their enemies; as also by them
that were without, because they were in fear for those that were left in the
city. Thus did the Jews grow more numerous perpetually, and had great
advantages over the Romans, by their full knowledge of those narrow lanes;
and they wounded a great many of them, and fell upon them, and drove them
out of the city.

Now these Romans were at present forced to make the best resistance they
could, for they were not able, in great numbers, to get out at the breach in
the wall, it was so narrow. It is also probable that all those that were
gotten within had been cut to pieces, if Titus had not sent them succors, for
he ordered the archers to stand at the upper ends of these narrow lanes, and
he stood himself where was the greatest multitude of his enemies, and with
his darts he put a stop to them; as with him did Domitius Sabinus also, a
valiant man, and one that in this battle appeared so to be. Thus did Caesar
continue to shoot darts at the Jews continually and to hinder them from
coming upon his men, and this until all his soldiers had retreated out of the

And thus were the Romans driven out, after they had possessed themselves
of the second wall. Whereupon the fighting men that were in the city were
lifted up in their minds and were elevated upon this their good success, and
began to think that the Romans would never venture to come into the city any
more; and that if they kept within it themselves they should not be any more
conquered, for God had blinded their minds for the transgressions they had
been guilty of, nor could they see how much greater forces the Romans had
than those that were now expelled, no more than they could discern how a
famine was creeping upon them, for hitherto they had fed themselves out of
the public miseries and drank the blood of the city. But now poverty had for
a long time seized upon the better part, and a great many had died already
for want of necessaries, although the seditious indeed supposed the
destruction of the people to be an easement to themselves, for they desired
that none others might be preserved but such as were against a peace with the
Romans, and were resolved to live in opposition to them, and they were
pleased when the multitude of those of a contrary opinion were consumed, as
being then freed from a heavy burden. And this was their disposition of mind
with regard to those that were within the city, while they covered themselves
with their armor, and prevented the Romans, when they were trying to get into
the city again, and made a wall of their own bodies over against that part of
the wall that was cast down.

Thus did they valiantly defend themselves for three days; but on the
fourth day they could not support themselves against the vehement assaults of
Titus, but were compelled by force to fly whither they had fled before; so he
quietly possessed himself again of that wall and demolished it entirely. And
when he had put a garrison into the towers that were on the south parts of
the city, he contrived how he might assault the third wall.

A resolution was now taken by Titus to relax the siege for a little
while, and to afford the seditious an interval for consideration, and to see
whether the demolishing of their second wall would not make them a little
more compliant, or whether they were not somewhat afraid of a famine, because
the spoils they had gotten by rapine would not be sufficient for them long;
so he made use of this relaxation in order to compass his own designs.
Accordingly, as the usual appointed time when he must distribute subsistence
money to the soldiers was now come, he gave orders that the commanders should
put the army into battle array, in the face of the enemy, and then give every
one of the soldiers his pay.

The Romans spent four days in bringing this subsistence money to the
several legions. But on the fifth day, when no signs of peace appeared to
come from the Jews, Titus divided his legions and began to raise banks, both
at the tower of Antonia and at John's monument. Now his designs were to take
the upper city at that monument, and the Temple at the tower of Antonia, for
if the Temple were not taken, it would be dangerous to keep the city itself;
so at each of these parts he raised him banks, each legion raising one. As
for those that wrought at John's monument, the Idumeans, and those that were
in arms with Simon, made sallies upon them, and put some stop to them; while
John's party, and the multitude of Zealots with them, did the like to those
that were before the tower of Antonia.

These Jews were now too hard for the Romans, not only in direct
fighting, because they stood upon the higher ground, but because they had now
learned to use their own engines, for their continual use of them one day
after another did by degrees improve their skill about them, for of one sort
of engines for darts they had three hundred, and forty for stones; by the
means of which they made it more tedious for the Romans to raise their banks.
But then Titus, knowing that the city would be either saved or destroyed for
himself, did not only proceed earnestly in the siege, but did not omit to
have the Jews exhorted to repentance; so he mixed good counsel with his works
for the siege. And being sensible that exhortations are frequently more
effectual than arms, he persuaded them to surrender the city, now in a manner
already taken, and thereby to save themselves, and sent Josephus to speak to
them in their own language, for he imagined they might yield to the
persuasion of a countryman of their own.

As Josephus was speaking thus with a loud voice, the seditious would
neither yield to what he said, nor did they deem it safe for them to alter
their conduct; but as for the people, they had a great inclination to desert
to the Romans. Accordingly, some of them sold what they had, and even the
most precious things that had been laid up as treasures by them, for a very
small matter, and swallowed down pieces of gold, that they might not be found
out by the robbers; and when they had escaped to the Romans, went to stool,
and had wherewithal to provide plentifully for themselves, for Titus let a
great number of them go away into the country, whither they pleased. And the
main reasons why they were so ready to desert were these: That now they
should be freed from those miseries which they had endured in that city, and
yet should not be in slavery to the Romans. However John and Simon, with
their factions, did more carefully watch these men's going out than they did
the coming in of the Romans; and if any one did but afford the least shadow
of suspicion of such an intention, his throat was cut immediately.

But as for the richer sort, it proved all one to them whether they
stayed in the city or attempted to get out of it, for they were equally
destroyed in both cases, for every such person was put to death under this
pretence, that they were going to desert, but in reality that the robbers
might get what they had. The madness of the seditious did also increase
together with their famine, and both those miseries were every day inflamed
more and more, for there was no corn which anywhere appeared publicly, but
the robbers came running into and searched men's private houses; and then, if
they found any, they tormented them, because they had denied they had any;
and if they found none, they tormented them worse, because they supposed they
had more carefully concealed it. The indication they made use of whether
they had any or not was taken from the bodies of these miserable wretches,
which, if they were in good case, they supposed they were in no want at all
of food; but if they were wasted away, they walked off without searching any
further; nor did they think it proper to kill such as these, because they saw
they would very soon die of themselves for want of food. Many there were
indeed who sold what they had for one measure. It was of wheat, if they were
of the richer sort; but of barley, if they were poorer. When these had so
done, they shut themselves up in the inmost rooms of their houses, and ate
the corn they had gotten. Some did it without grinding it, by reason of the
extremity of the want they were in, and others baked bread of it, according
as necessity and fear dictated to them. A table was nowhere laid for a
distinct meal, but they snatched the bread out of the fire, half-baked, and
ate it very hastily.

It was now a miserable case, and a sight that would justly bring tears
into our eyes, how men stood as to their food, while the more powerful had
more than enough, and the weaker were lamenting [for want of it]. But the
famine was too hard for all other passions, and it is destructive to nothing
so much as to modesty, for what was otherwise worthy of reverence was in this
case despised; insomuch that children pulled the very morsels that their
fathers were eating out of their very mouths, and what was still more to be
pitied, so did the mothers do as to their infants; and when those that were
most dear were perishing under their hands, they were not ashamed to take
from them the very last drops that might preserve their lives; and while
they ate after this manner, yet were they not concealed in so doing; but the
seditious everywhere came upon them immediately and snatched away from them
what they had gotten from others, for when they saw any house shut up this
was to them a signal that the people within had gotten some food; whereupon
they broke open the doors and ran in and took pieces of what they were eating
almost up out of their very throats, and this by force: the old men who held
their food fast were beaten; and if the women hid what they had within their
hands, their hair was torn for so doing; nor was there any commiseration
shown either to the aged or to the infants, but they lifted up children from
the ground as they hung upon the morsels they had gotten and shook them down
upon the floor. But still they were more barbarously cruel to those that
had prevented their coming in, and had actually swallowed down what they
were going to seize upon, as if they had been unjustly defrauded of their

They also invented terrible methods of torments to discover where any
food was, and they were these: to stop up the passages of the privy parts of
the miserable wretches, and to drive sharp stakes up their fundaments; and a
man was forced to bear what it is terrible even to hear, in order to make him
confess that he had but one loaf of bread, or that he might discover a
handful of barley meal that was concealed; and this was done when these
tormentors were not themselves hungry, for the thing had been less barbarous
had necessity forced them to it; but this was done to keep their madness in
exercise, and as making preparation of provisions for themselves for the
following days. These men went also to meet those that had crept out of the
city by night, as far as the Roman guards, to gather some plants and herbs
that grew wild; and when those people thought they had got clear of the
enemy, they snatched from them what they had brought with them, even while
they had frequently entreated them, and that by calling upon the tremendous
name of God, to give them back some part of what they had brought, though
these would not give them the least crumb, and they were to be well contented
that they were only spoiled and not slain at the same time.

It is impossible to go distinctly over every instance of these men's
iniquity. I shall therefore speak my mind here at once briefly: That
neither did any other city ever suffer such miseries, nor did any age ever
breed a generation more fruitful in wickedness than this was, from the
beginning of the world. Finally, they brought the Hebrew nation into
contempt, that they might themselves appear comparatively less impious with
regard to strangers. They confessed what was true, that they were the
slaves, the scum, and the spurious and abortive offspring of our nation,
while they overthrew the city themselves, and forced the Romans, whether they
would or no, to gain a melancholy reputation, by acting gloriously against
them, and did almost draw that fire upon the Temple which they seemed to
think came too slowly; and indeed when they saw that Temple burning from the
upper city, they were neither troubled at it nor did they shed any tears on
that account, while yet these passions were discovered among the Romans

So now Titus' banks were advanced a great way, notwithstanding his
soldiers had been very much distressed from the wall. He then sent a party
of horsemen and ordered they should lay ambushes for those that went out into
the valleys to gather food. Some of these were indeed fighting men, who were
not contented with what they got by rapine; but the greater part of them were
poor people, who were deterred from deserting by the concern they were under
for their own relations, for they could not hope to escape away, together
with their wives and children, without the knowledge of the seditious; nor
could they think of leaving these relations to be slain by the robbers on
their account; nay, the severity of the famine made them bold in thus going
out; so nothing remained but that, when they were concealed from the robbers,
they should be taken by the enemy; and when they were going to be taken they
were forced to defend themselves for fear of being punished; as after they
had fought they thought it too late to make any supplications for mercy; so
they were first whipped and then tormented with all sorts of tortures before
they died, and were then crucified before the wall of the city. This
miserable procedure made Titus greatly to pity them, while they caught every
day five hundred Jews; nay, some days they caught more; yet it did not appear
to be safe for him to let those that were taken by force go their way, and to
set a guard over so many he saw would be to make such as guarded them useless
to him. The main reason why he did not forbid that cruelty was this: that he
hoped the Jews might perhaps yield at that sight, out of fear lest they might
themselves afterward be liable to the same cruel treatment. So the soldiers,
out of the wrath and hatred they bore the Jews, nailed those they caught, one
after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest,
when their multitude was so great that room was wanting for the crosses, and
crosses wanting for the bodies.

But so far were the seditious from repenting at this sad sight that, on
the contrary, they made the rest of the multitude believe otherwise, for they
brought the relations of those that had deserted upon the wall, with such of
the populace as were very eager to go over upon the security offered them,
and showed them what miseries those underwent who fled to the Romans; and
told them that those who were caught were supplicants to them, and not such
as were taken prisoners. This sight kept many of those within the city who
were so eager to desert, till the truth was known; yet did some of them run
away immediately as unto certain punishment, esteeming death from their
enemies to be a quiet departure, if compared with that by famine. So Titus
commanded that the hands of many of those that were caught should be cut off,
that they might not be thought deserters, and might be credited on account of
the calamity they were under, and sent them in to John and Simon, with this
exhortation, that they would now at length leave off (their madness), and not
force him to destroy the city, whereby they would have those advantages of
repentance, even in their utmost distress, that they would preserve their own
lives, and so find a city of their own, and that Temple which was their
peculiar. He then went round about the banks that were cast up, and hastened
them, in order to show that his words should in no long time be followed by
his deeds. In answer to which the seditious cast reproaches upon Caesar
himself, and upon his father also, and cried out, with a loud voice, that
they contemned death, and did well in preferring it before slavery; that they
would do all the mischief to the Romans they could while they had breath in
them; and that for their own city, since they were, as he said, to be
destroyed, they had no concern about it, and that the world itself was a
better temple to God than this. That yet this Temple would be preserved by
Him that inhabited therein, whom they still had for their assistant in this
war, and did therefore laugh at all his threatenings, which would come to
nothing, because the conclusion of the whole depended upon God only. These
words were mixed with reproaches, and with them they made a mighty clamor.

In the mean time Antiochus Epiphanes came to the city, having with him a
considerable number of other armed men, and a band called the Macedonian band
about him, all of the same age, tall, and just past their childhood, armed,
and instructed after the Macedonian manner, whence it was that they took that
name. Antiochus with his Macedonians made a sudden assault upon the wall;
and, indeed, for his own part, his strength and skill were so great that he
guarded himself from the Jewish darts, and yet shot his darts at them, while
yet the young men with him were almost all sorely galled, for they had so
great a regard to the promises that had been made of their courage, that they
would needs persevere in their fighting, and at length many of them retired,
but not till they were wounded; and then they perceived that true
Macedonians, if they were to be conquerors, must have Alexander's good
fortune also.

Now as the Romans began to raise their banks on the twelfth day of the
month Artemisius [Jyar], so had they much ado to finish them by the
twenty-ninth day of the same month, after they had labored hard for seventeen
days continually, for there were now four great banks raised, one of which
was at the tower Antonia. This was raised by the Fifth legion, over against
the middle of that pool which was called Struthius. Another was cast up by
the Twelfth legion at the distance of about twenty cubits from the other.
But the labors of the Tenth legion, which lay a great way off these, were on
the north quarter, and at the pool called Amygdalon; as was that of the
Fifteenth legion about thirty cubits from it, and at the high-priest's
monument. And now, when the engines were brought, John had from within
undermined the space that was over against the tower of Antonia, as far as
the banks themselves, and had supported the ground over the mine with beams
laid across one another, whereby the Roman works stood upon an uncertain

Then did he order such materials to be brought in as were daubed over
with pitch and bitumen, and set them on fire; and as the cross-beams that
supported the banks were burning, the ditch yielded on the sudden, and the
banks were shaken down, and fell into the ditch with a prodigious noise. Now
at the first there arose a very thick smoke and dust, as the fire was choked
with the fall of the bank; but as the suffocated materials were now gradually
consumed, a plain flame brake out; on which sudden appearance of the flame a
consternation fell upon the Romans, and the shrewdness of the contrivance
discouraged them; and indeed this accident coming upon them at a time when
they thought they had already gained their point, cooled their hopes for the
time to come. They also thought it would be to no purpose to take the pains
to extinguish the fire, since if it were extinguished the banks were
swallowed up already [and become useless to them].

Two days after this Simon and his party made an attempt to destroy the
other banks, for the Romans had brought their engines to bear there, and
began already to make the wall shake. And here one Tephtheus, of Garsis, a
city of Galilee, and Megassarus, one who was derived from some of Queen
Mariamne's servants, and with them one from Adiabene, he was the son of
Nabateus, and called by the name of Chagiras, from the ill-fortune he had,
the word signifying "a lame man," snatched some torches and ran suddenly upon
the engines. Nor were there during this war any men that ever sallied out of
the city who were their superiors, either in their boldness or in the terror
they struck into their enemies, for they ran out upon the Romans, not as if
they were enemies, but friends, without fear or delay; nor did they leave
their enemies till they had rushed violently through the midst of them, and
set their machines on fire. And though they had darts thrown at them on
every side and were on every side assaulted with their enemies' swords, yet
did they not withdraw themselves out of the dangers they were in till the
fire had caught hold of the instruments; but when the flame went up the
Romans came running from their camp to save their engines.

Then did the Jews hinder their succors from the wall, and fought with
those that endeavored to quench the fire, without any regard to the danger
their bodies were in. So the Romans pulled the engines out of the fire,
while the hurdles that covered them were on fire; but the Jews caught hold of
the battering rams through the flame itself and held them fast, although the
iron upon them was become red hot; and now the fire spread itself from the
engines to the banks, and prevented those that came to defend them; and all
this while the Romans were encompassed round about with the flame; and,
despairing of saving their works from it, they retired to their camp. Then
did the Jews become still more and more in number by the coming of those that
were within the city to their assistance; and as they were very bold upon the
good success they had had, their violent assaults were almost irresistible
- nay, they proceeded as far as the fortifications of the enemies' camp, and
fought with their guards.

Now there stood a body of soldiers in array before that camp, which
succeeded one another by turns in their armor; and as to those the law of the
Romans was terrible, that he who left his post there, let the occasion be
whatsoever it might be, he was to die for it; so that body of soldiers,
preferring rather to die in fighting courageously than as a punishment for
their cowardice, stood firm; and at the necessity these men were in of
standing to it, many of the others that had run away, out of shame, turned
back again; and when they had set the engines against the wall they put the
multitude from coming more of them out of the city (which they could the more
easily do) because they had made no provision for preserving or guarding
their bodies at this time; for the Jews fought now hand-to-hand with all that
came in their way, and, without any caution fell, against the points of their
enemies' spears, and attacked them bodies against bodies, for they were now
too hard for the Romans, not so much by their other warlike actions, as by
these courageous assaults they made upon them; and the Romans gave way more
to their boldness than they did to the sense of the harm they had received
from them.

And now Titus was come from the tower of Antonia, whither he was gone to
look out for a place for raising other banks, and reproached the soldiers
greatly for permitting their own walls to be in danger, when they had taken
the walls of their enemies, and sustained the fortune of men besieged, while
the Jews were allowed to sally out against them, though they were already in
a sort of prison. He then went round about the enemy with some chosen troops
and fell upon their flank himself; so the Jews, who had been before assaulted
in their faces, wheeled about to Titus and continued the fight.

The armies also were now mixed one among another, and the dust that was
raised so far hindered them from seeing one another, and the noise that was
made so far hindered them from hearing one another, that neither side could
discern an enemy from a friend. However, the Jews did not flinch, though not
so much from their real strength as from their despair of deliverance. The
Romans also would not yield, by reason of the regard they had to glory and to
their reputation in war, and because Caesar himself went into the danger
before them; insomuch that I cannot but think the Romans would in the
conclusion have now taken even the whole multitude of the Jews, so very angry
were they at them, had these not prevented the upshot of the battle, and
retired into the city. However, seeing the banks of the Romans were
demolished, these Romans were very much cast down upon the loss of what had
cost them so long pains, and this in one hour's time. And many indeed
despaired of taking the city with their usual engines of war only.

And now did Titus consult with his commanders what was to be done.
Those that were of the warmest tempers thought he should bring the whole army
against the city and storm the wall. The opinion of Titus was, that if they
aimed at quickness joined with security they must build a wall round about
the whole city, and he gave orders that the army should be distributed to
their several shares of this work. Titus began the wall from the camp of the
Assyrians, where his own camp was pitched, and drew it down to the lower
parts of Cenopolis; thence it went along the valley of Cedron to the Mount of
Olives; it then bent toward the south,nand encompassed the mountain as far as
the rock called Peristereon, and that other hill which lies next it, and is
over the valley which reaches to Siloam; whence it bended again to the west,
and went down to the valley of the Fountain, beyond which it went up again at
the monument of Ananus, the high-priest, and encompassing that mountain where
Pompey had formerly pitched his camp, it returned back to the north side of
the city, and was carried on as far as a certain village called "The House of
the Erebinthi"; after which it encompassed Herod's monument, and there, on
the east, was joined to Titus' own camp, where it began.

Now the length of this wall was forty furlongs, one only abated. Now at
this wall without were erected thirteen places to keep garrison in, whose
circumferences, put together, amounted to ten furlongs; the whole was
completed in three days; so that what would naturally have required some
months was done in so short an interval as is incredible. When Titus had
therefore encompassed the city with this wall and put garrisons into proper
places, he went round the wall, at the first watch of the night, and observed
how the guard was kept; the second watch he allotted to Alexander; the
commanders of legions took the third watch. They also cast lost among
themselves who should be upon the watch in the night-time, and who should go
all night long round the spaces that were interposed between the garrisons.




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