World War Two, CHURCHILL, Winston
Edited By: Robert A. Guisepi
Once called "a genius without judgment," Sir Winston Churchill rose through a stormy career to become an internationally respected statesman during World War II. He was one of Britain's greatest prime ministers.
Winston Churchill was born on Nov. 30, 1874, at Blenheim Palace, in the 21,000-acre estate of the dukes of Marlborough. His father was Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of the seventh duke. His mother, Jennie Jerome, had been a New York society beauty. When Winston was born, his father was chancellor of the exchequer for Queen Victoria. As Winston grew to boyhood, his grandfather became viceroy of Ireland and his father served as viceregal secretary. So Winston spent his early years in Dublin, then attended two private schools in England.
When he was 12 his father sent him to Harrow. A chunky explosive redhead, Winston stayed in the lowest grades "three times longer than any one else." In later life he said, "By being so long in the lowest form [grades] I gained an immense advantage over the clever boys. They all went on to learn Latin and Greek and splendid things like that. But I was taught English. Thus I got into my bones the structure of the ordinary English sentence--which is a noble thing." When he was 16, he entered Sandhurst, a historic British military college. There he excelled in studies of tactics and fortifications and graduated 8th in a class of 150.
In March 1895 he became a sublieutenant in the 4th (Queen's Own) Hussars, a distinguished cavalry regiment. He also began to write. He spent his first leave of three months as correspondent in Cuba for the London Daily Graphic, meanwhile serving as military observer with the Spanish forces.
He joined a Punjab Infantry regiment in India in 1897. Between duties he read the works of Gibbon, Darwin, Plato, Aristotle, Schopenhauer, and Macaulay. From Gibbon especially, Churchill learned much of the sonorous, rich style that was to make him the outstanding orator of his day. In 1898 he joined the British Army in the Sudan in time for the battle of Khartoum. After being decorated for bravery, he wrote two lively books, 'The Malakand Field Force' (1898) and 'The River War' (1899).
Churchill's return to England in 1899 changed his career. Disliking his low army salary, he determined to enter politics. But when he "stood" for Parliament, he was defeated. Churchill was undaunted.
At the outbreak of the Boer War in South Africa in 1899, he obtained an assignment from the Morning Post as war correspondent. The rules of war forbidding correspondents to carry arms or take part in combat had not yet been established. So Churchill rode into the thick of firing at Spion Kop, Vaal Krantz, and other ensuing battles. In one engagement he was captured by Louis Botha and imprisoned, along with other captured officers, in a school building in Pretoria. He made his escape in an extraordinarily bold manner and eventually reached the British lines, some 300 miles away
Upon his return to England, Churchill made up for an old defeat, as he was to do so often in his life. The same workingmen who had rejected him in 1899 now, in 1900, elected him to Parliament as a hero. Before he took office he toured Canada and the United States, lecturing on his Boer War experiences.
Churchill Enters Politics
In his first term in Parliament, Churchill soon showed that he was to be a highly individual politician. Though elected as a Conservative, he showed little awe of any party leader. His friends said his politics varied with his convictions. His enemies countered that his politics varied with the trends in votes. He soon changed from Conservative to Liberal, leading the chief of the Conservatives to call him "once a young man of promise; now a young man of promises." In 1906 he was returned to Parliament as a Liberal member from Manchester.
Even Churchill's foes could not deny that he was a hard worker. His enormous energy carried him through a succession of offices. At 32 he became undersecretary of state for the colonies (1906-8). Two years later he entered the Cabinet as president of the board of trade (1908-10). He also served as secretary of state for home affairs (1910-11).
Prepares the Navy for World War I
England feared war with Germany after the Agadir incident in July 1911. Churchill was made first lord of the admiralty and ordered to put the fleet into a state of instant readiness. From that moment, Churchill worked hard to reorganize the navy. He built a fine staff, obtained 15-inch guns and fast battleships, and developed the Royal Naval Air Service, which was the forerunner of the Royal Air Force. When World War I broke out three years later, Churchill's efficient navy became England's first powerful weapon against Germany.
In 1915, however, Churchill again met failure. As a war adviser, he led a small group in advocating an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula. The campaign, which was designed to eliminate Turkey from the war, proved a disastrous failure.
Churchill resigned his post under sharp criticism. He then went to France as a lieutenant colonel. His ability to get things done, however, was badly needed and in 1917 he was made minister of munitions in wartime England.
"The Wilderness Years"
The years between the first and second World Wars found Churchill gradually slipping from power. True, he remained in Parliament and held several posts--secretary of war and air minister, 1918-21; under-secretary for the colonies, 1921-22; chancellor of the exchequer, 1924-29; and lord rector of the University of Edinburgh, 1929-32. During these years, however, no momentous crisis arose to stimulate his enthusiasm or his talents.
Churchill filled his time with travel, painting under the name of "Charles Marin," and lecturing in the United States. He finished his six-volume 'Life of Marlborough'. His writing earned him as much as $100,000 a year.
England, exhausted by war, only called him a warmonger when he raised his voice in Parliament after the Lausanne Disarmament Conference in 1932, crying "Britain's hour of weakness is Europe's hour of danger." Political rivals dismissed it as "another of Winston's epigrams." But from the moment that Hitler rose to power in Germany in 1933, Churchill, again a Conservative, saw the challenge. He gathered data on German rearmament, trying to waken England. In 1938, when Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sacrificed Czechoslovakia to appease Hitler, Churchill declared, "You chose dishonor, and you will have war!"
Prime Minister and Wartime Leader
On Sept. 3, 1939, war came. Chamberlain at once appointed Churchill to his former post as first lord of the admiralty. Eight months later, on May 10, 1940, Chamberlain was forced to resign as prime minister. Churchill succeeded him.
At the moment Churchill took office, the armed might of Germany was sweeping Europe. Yet Churchill stood firm before the British people and declared, "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat." He promised "to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime." His thundering defiance and courage heartened Britain, and his two fingers raised in the "V for Victory" sign became an international symbol for determination and hope.
Before the United States entered the war, he obtained American destroyers and lend-lease aid and met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 to draw up the Atlantic Charter. Later he helped plan overall Allied strategy. Although Churchill held that international Communism was a threat to peace, he worked with Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin for the defeat of the common enemy--Nazi Germany.
The Labour-Conservative coalition government dissolved soon after the war ended in Europe. The Labour party won the general election of 1945, forcing Churchill's resignation as prime minister. He then entered the House of Commons as "leader of His Majesty's loyal opposition."
Churchill's flair for colorful speech endured. At Fulton, Mo., on March 5, 1946, he declared: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended over the Continent." "Iron curtain" soon became the term for the barrier between the West and areas under Soviet control.
In 1951 Churchill was again chosen prime minister, resigning in 1955. In 1953 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II and received the Nobel prize for literature. By an act of Congress Churchill was made an honorary citizen of the United States in 1963.
Since 1908 Churchill had been married to the former Clementine Ogilvy Hozier. They had one son, Randolph, and three daughters: Diana, Sarah, and Mary. Churchill died in London on Jan. 24, 1965. He received a state funeral, the first for a commoner since 1898. He was buried next to his parents at Bladon, near Blenheim Palace.