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Tenochtitlan and the Conquest of the Americas

 

History Of The Conquest Of Mexico, The Aztecs (part seven)

The Postclassical Era

Book:       Chapter 17: The Americas On The Eve Of Invasion

Author:     Prescott, William H

Date:        1992

 

Document: Aztec Women And Men

 

     In the mid-16th century, Bernardino de Sahagun, a Spanish missionary,

prepared an extraordinary encyclopedia of Aztec culture. His purpose was to

gather this information to learn the customs and beliefs of the Indians and

their language in order to better convert them. While Sahagun hated the Indian

religion, he came to admire many aspects of their culture. His work, The

General History of the Things of New Spain, is one of the first ethnographies

and a remarkable compendium of Aztec culture. Sahagun used numerous Indian

informants to tell him about the days before the European arrival and so, even

though this work dates from the postconquest era, it contains much useful

information about earlier Aztec life.

 

     In the following excerpts, the proper behavior for different roles of

both women and men in Aztec society are described by the Aztecs themselves.

 

Father

 

     One's father is the source of lineage. He is the sincere one. One's

father is diligent, solicitous, compassionate, sympathetic; a careful

administrator of his household. He rears, he teaches others, he advises, he

admonishes one. He is exemplary; he leads a model life. He stores up for

himself; he stores up for others. He cares for his assets; he saves for

others. He is thrifty; he saves for the future, teaches thrift. He regulates,

distributes with care, establishes order.

 

     The bad father is incompassionate, negligent, unreliable. He is unfeeling

... a shirker, a loafer, a sullen worker.

 

Mother

 

     One's mother has children; she suckles them. Sincere, vigilant, agile,

she is an energetic worker - diligent, watchful, solicitous, full of anxiety.

She teaches people; she is attentive to them. She caresses, she serves others;

she is apprehensive for their welfare; she is careful, thrifty - constantly at

work.

 

     The bad mother is evil, dull, stupid, sleepy, lazy. She is a squanderer,

a petty thief, a deceiver, a fraud. Unreliable, she is one who loses things

through neglect or anger, who heeds no one. She is disrespectful,

inconsiderate, disregarding, careless. She shows the way to disobedience; she

expounds nonconformity.

 

The Ruler

 

     The ruler is a shelter - fierce, revered, famous, esteemed; well-reputed,

renowned.

 

     The good ruler is a protector; one who carries his subjects in his arms,

who unites them, who brings them together. He rules, he takes

responsibilities, assumes burdens. He carries his subjects in his cape; he

bears them in his arms. He governs; he is obeyed. To him as a shelter, as

refuge, there is recourse. . . .

 

     The bad ruler is a wild beast, a demon of the air, an ocelot, a wolf -

infamous, avoided, detested as a respecter of nothing. He terrifies with his

gaze; he makes the earth rumble; he implants, he spreads fear. He is wished

dead.

 

The Noble

 

     The noble has a mother, a father. He resembles his parents. The good

noble is obedient, cooperative, a follower of his parents' ways, a discreet

worker; attentive, willing. He follows the ways of his parents; he resembles

his father; he becomes his father's successor, he assumes his lot.

 

     One of noble lineage is a follower of the exemplary life, a taker of the

good example of others; a seeker, a follower of the exemplary life. He speaks

eloquently, he is soft-spoken, virtuous, deserving of gratitude. He is noble

of heart, gentle of word, discreet, well-reared, well-taught. He is moderate,

energetic, inquiring, inquisitive. He scratches the earth with a thorn. He is

one who fasts, who starves his entrails, who parches his lips. He provides

nourishment to others. He sustains one, he serves food, he provides comfort.

He is a concealer [of himself], a belittler of himself. He magnifies and

praises others. He is a mourner for the dead, a doer of penances, a gracious

speaker; devout, godly, desirable, wanted, memorable.

 

     The bad noble is ungrateful and forgetful; a debaser, a disparager of

things, contemptuous of others, arrogant, bragging. He creates disorder,

glories over his lineage, exdols his own virtues.

 

The Mature Common Woman

 

     The good mature woman is candid. She is resolute, firm of heart, constant

- not to be dismayed; brave like a man; vigorous, resolute, persevering - not

one to falter. She is long-suffering; she accepts reprimands calmly - endures

things like a man. She becomes firm - takes courage. She is intent. She gives

of herself. She goes in humility. She exerts herself.

 

     The bad woman is thin, tottering, weak - an inconstant companion,

unfriendly. She annoys others, chagrins them, shames, oppresses one. She

becomes impatient, she loses hope, becomes embarrassed - chagrined. Evil is

her life, she lives in shame.

 

The Weaver Of Designs

 

     She concerns herself with using thread, works with thread. The good

weaver of designs is skilled - a maker of varicolored capes, an outliner of

designs, a blender of colors, a joiner of pieces, a matcher of pieces, a

person of good memory. She does things dexterously. She weaves designs. She

selects. She weaves tightly. She forms borders. She forms the neck. . . .

 

     The bad weaver of designs is untrained - silly, foolish, unobservant,

unskilled of hand, ignorant, stupid. She tangles the thread, she harms her

work - she spoils it.

 

The Physician

 

     The physician is a knower of herbs, of roots, of trees, of stones; she is

experienced in these. She is one who conducts examinations; she is a woman of

experience, of trust, of professional skill: a counselor.

 

     The good physician is a restorer, a provider of health, a relaxer - one

who makes people feel well, who envelops one in ashes. She cures people; she

provides them health, she lances them, she bleeds them . . . pierces them with

an obsidian lancet.

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