Amerigo Vespucci's Account Of His First Voyage

Author:      Vespucci, Amerigo
Date:        1497

Amerigo Vespucci's Account Of His First Voyage

Introduction

      Amerigo Vespucci was born in Florence in 1452 and died in Seville in

1512. He was employed in the latter city in the business house which fitted

out Columbus' second expedition. The following letter gives his own account of

the first of the four voyages which he claimed to have made to the New World.

He seems to have touched the mainland a few weeks before Cabot, and some

fourteen months before Columbus. The suspicions which long clouded his title

to fame have been largely dissipated by modern investigation; and it seems to

have been not without reason that Waldseemuller in 1507 proposed to call the

new continent by his name.


 

     The present translation is made from Vespucci's Italian (published at

Florence in 1505-6) by "M. K.", for Quaritch's edition, London, 1885.

 

Letter of Amerigo Vespucci To Pier Soderini Gonfalonier

 

     To Pier Soderini Gonfalonier of the Republic of Florence

 

     Magnificent Lord. After humble reverence and due commendations, etc. It

may be that your Magnificence will be surprised by (this conjunction of) my

rashness and your customary wisdom, in that I should so absurdly bestir myself

to write to your Magnificence the present so-prolix letter: knowing (as I do)

that your Magnificence is continually employed in high councils and affairs

concerning the good government of this sublime Republic. And will hold me not

only presumptuous, but also idlymeddlesome in setting myself to write things,

neither suitable to your station, nor entertaining, and written in barbarous

style, and outside of every canon of polite literature: but my confidence

which I have in your virtues and in the truth of my writing, which are things

(that) are not found written neither by the ancients nor by modern writers, as

your Magnificence will in the sequel perceive, makes me bold. The chief cause

which moved (me) to write to you, was at the request of the present bearer,

who is named Benvenuto Benvenuti our Florentine (fellow-citizen), very much,

as it is proven, your Magnificence's servant, and my very good friend: who

happening to be here in this city of Lisbon, begged that I should make

communication to your Magnificence of the things seen by me in divers regions

of the world, by virtue of four voyages which I have made in discovery of new

lands: two by order of the king of Castile, King Don Ferrando VI, across the

great gulf of the Ocean-sea, towards the west: and the other two by command of

the puissant King Don Manuel King of Portugal, towards the south; telling me

that your Magnificence would take pleasure thereof, and that herein he hoped

to do you service: wherefore I set me to do it: because I am assured that your

Magnificence holds me in the number of your servants, remembering that in the

time of our youth I was your friend, and now (am your) servant: and

(remembering our) going to hear the rudiments of grammar under the fair

example and instruction of the venerable monk friar of Saint Mark Fra Giorgio

Antonio Vespucci: whose counsels and teaching would to God that I had

followed: for as saith Petrarch, I should be another man than what I am.

Howbeit soever I grieve not: because I have ever taken delight in worthy

matters: and although these trifles of mine may not be suitable to your

virtues, I will say to you as said Pliny to Maecenas, you were sometime wont

to take pleasure in my prattlings: even though your Magnificence be

continuously busied in public affairs, you will take some hour of relaxation

to consume a little time in frivolous or amusing things: and as fennel is

customarily given atop of delicious viands to fit them for better digestion,

so may you, for a relief from your so heavy occupations, order this letter of

mine to be read: so that they may withdraw you somewhat from the continual

anxiety and assiduous reflection upon public affairs: and if I shall be

prolix, I crave pardon, my Magnificent Lord. Your Magnificence shall know that

the motive of my coming into his realm of Spain was to traffic in merchandise:

and that I pursued this intent about four years: during which I saw and knew

the inconstant shiftings of Fortune: and how she kept changing those frail and

transitory benefits: and how at one time she holds man on the summit of the

wheel, and at another time drives him back from her, and despoils him of what

may be called his borrowed riches: so that, knowing the continuous toil which

main undergoes to win them, submitting himself to so many anxieties and risks,

I resolved to abandon trade, and to fix my aim upon something more praise-

worthy and stable: whence it was that I made preparation for going to see part

of the world and its wonders: and herefor the time and place presented

themselves most opportunely to me: which was that the King Don Ferrando of

Castile being about to despatch four ships to discover new lands towards the

west, I was chosen by his Highness to go in that fleet to aid in making

discovery: and we set out from the port of Cadiz on the 10th day of May 1497,

and took our route through the great gulf of the Ocean-sea: in which voyage we

were eighteen months (engaged): and discovered much continental land and

innumerable islands, and great part of them inhabited: whereas there is no

mention made by the ancient writers of them: I believe, because they had no

knowledge thereof: for, if I remember well, I have read in some one (of those

writers) that he considered that this Ocean-sea was an unpeopled sea: and of

this opinion was Dante our poet in the xxvi. chapter of the Inferno, where he

feigns the death of Ulysses, in which voyage I beheld things of great

wondrousness, as your Magnificence shall understand. As I said above, we left

the port of Cadiz four consort ships: and began our voyage in direct course to

the Fortunates Isles which are called to-day la gran Canaria, which are

situated in the Ocean-sea at the extremity of the inhabited west, (and) set in

the third climate: over which the North Pole has an elevation of 27 and a half

degrees beyond their horizon ^1 and they are 280 leagues distant from this

city of Lisbon, by the wind between mezzo di and libeccio. ^2 where we

remained eight days, taking in provision of water, and wood and other

necessary things: and from here, having said our prayers, we weighed anchor,

and gave the sails to the wind, beginning our course to westward, taking one

quarter by south- west: ^3 and so we sailed on till at the end of 37 days we

reached a land which we deemed to be a continent: which is distant westwardly

from the isles of Canary about a thousand leagues beyond the inhabited region

^4 within the torrid zone: for we found the North Pole at an elevation of 16

degrees above its horizon, ^5 and (it was) westward, according to the shewing

of our instruments, 75 degrees from the isles of Canary: whereat we anchored

with our ships a league and a half from land; and we put out our boats

freighted with men and arms: we made towards the land, and before we reached

it, had sight of a great number of people who were going along the shore: by

which we were much rejoiced: and we observed that they were a naked race: they

shewed themselves to stand in fear of us: I believe (it was) because they saw

us clothed and of other appearance (than their own): they all withdrew to a

hill, and for whatsoever signals we made to them of peace and of friendliness,

they would not come to parley with us: so that, as the night was now coming

on, and as the ships were anchored in a dangerous place, being on a rough and

shelterless coast, we decided to remove from there the next day, and to go in

search of some harbour or bay, where we might place our ships in safety: and

we sailed with the maestrale wind, ^6 thus running along the coast with the

land ever in sight, continually in our course observing people along the

shore: till after having navigated for two days, we found a place sufficiently

secure for the ships, and anchored half a league from land, on which we saw a

very great number of people: and this same day we put to land with the boats,

and sprang on shore full 40 men in good trim: and still the land's people

appeared shy of converse with us, and we were unable to encourage them so much

as to make them come to speak with us: and this day we laboured so greatly in

giving them of our wares, such as rattles and mirrors, beads, spalline, and

other trifles, that some of them took confidence and came to discourse with

us: and after having made good friends with them, the night coming on, we took

our leave of them and returned to the ships: and the next day when the dawn

appeared we saw that there were infinite numbers of people upon the beach, and

they had their women and children with them: we went, ashore, and found that

they were all laden with their worldly goods ^7 which are suchlike as, in its

(proper) place, shall be related: and before we reached the land, many of them

jumped into the sea and came swimming to receive us at a bowshot's length

(from the shore), for they are very great swimmers, with as much confidence as

if they had for a long time been acquainted with us: and we were pleased with

this their confidence. For so much as we learned of their manner of life and

customs, it was that they go entirely naked, as well the men as the women. . .

. They are of medium stature, very well proportioned: their flesh is of a

colour the verges into red like a lion's mane: and I believe that if they went

clothed, they would be as white as we: they have not any hair upon the body,

except the hair of the head which is long and black, and especially in the

women, whom it renders handsome: in aspect they are not very good-looking,

because they have broad faces, so that they would seem Tartar-like: they let

no hair grow on their eyebrows, nor on their eyelids, nor elsewhere, except

the hair of the head: for they hold hairiness to be a filthy thing: they are

very light footed in walking and in running, as well the men as the women: so

that a woman recks nothing of running a league or two, as many times we saw

them do: and herein they have a very great advantage over us Christians: they

swim (with an expertness) beyond all belief, and the women better than the

men: for we have many times found and seen them swimming two leagues out at

sea without anything to rest upon. Their arms are bows and arrows very well

made, save that (the arrows) are not (tipped) with iron nor any other kind of

hard metal: and instead of iron they put animals' or fishes' teeth, or a spike

of tough wood, with the point hardened by fire: they are sure marksmen, for

they hit whatever they aim at: and in some places the women use these bows:

they have other weapons, such as fire-hardened spears, and also clubs with

knobs, beautifully carved. Warfare is used amongst them, which they carry on

against people not of their own language, very cruelly, without granting life

to any one, except (to reserve him) for greater suffering. When they go to

war, they take their women with them, not that these may fight, but because

they carry behind them their worldly goods, for a woman carries on her back

for thirty or forty leagues a load which no man could bear: as we have many

times seen them do. They are not accustomed to have any Captain, nor do they

go in any ordered array, for every one is lord of himself: and the cause of

their wars is not for lust of dominion, nor of extending their frontiers, no

for inordinate covetousness, but for some ancient enmity which in by-gone

times arose amongst them: and when asked why they made war, they knew not any

other reason to give than that they did so to avenge the death of their

ancestors, or of their parents: these people have neither King, nor Lord, nor

do they yield obedience to any one, for they live in their own liberty: and

how they be stirred up to go to war is (this) that when the enemies have slain

or captured any of them, his oldest kinsman rises up and goes about the

highways haranguing them to go with him and avenge the death of such his

kinsman: and so are they stirred up by fellow-feeling: they have no judicial

system, nor do they punish the ill-doer: nor does the father, nor the mother

chastise the children and marvelously (seldom) or never did we see any dispute

among them: in their conversation they appear simple, and they are very

cunning and acute in that which concerns them: they speak little and in a low

tone: they use the same articulations as we, since they form their utterances

either with the palate, or with the teeth, or on the lips: ^8 except that they

give different names to things. Many are the varieties of tongues: for in

every 100 leagues we found a change of language, so that they are not

understandable each to the other. The manner of their living is very

barbarous, for they do not eat at certain hours, and as often-times as they

will: and it is not much of a boon to them ^9 that the will may come more at

midnight than by day, for they eat at all hours: and they eat upon the ground

without a table-cloth or any other cover, for they have their meats either in

earthen basins which they make themselves, or in the halves of pumpkins: they

sleep in certain very large nettings made of cotton, suspended in the air: and

although this their (fashion of) sleeping may seem uncomfortable, I say that

it is sweet to sleep in those (nettings): and we slept better in them than in

the counterpanes. They are a people smooth and clean of body, because of so

continually washing themselves as they do. .

. . Amongst those people we did not learn that they had any law, nor can they

be called Moors nor Jews, and (they are) worse than pagans: because we did not

observe that they offered any sacrifice: nor even had they a house of prayer:

their manner of living I judge to be Epicurean: their dwellings are in common:

and their houses (are) made in the style of huts, but strongly made, and

constructed with very large trees, and covered over with palm-leaves, secure

against storms and winds: and in some places (they are) of so great breadth

and length, that in one single house we found there were 600 souls: and we saw

a village of only thirteen houses where there were four thousand souls: every

eight or ten years they change their habitations: and when asked why they did

so: (they said it was) because of the soil which, from its filthiness, was

already unhealthy and corrupted, and that it bred aches in their bodies, which

seemed to us a good reason: their riches consist of bird's plumes of many

colours, or of rosaries which they make from fishbones, or of white or green

stones which they put in their cheeks and in their lips and ears, and of many

other things which we in no wise value: they use no trade, they neither buy

nor sell. In fine, they live and are contended with that which nature gives

them. The wealth that we enjoy in this our Europe and elsewhere, such as gold,

jewels, pearls, and other riches, they hold as nothing; and although they have

them in their own lands, they do not labour to obtain them, nor do they value

them. They are liberal in giving, for it is rarely they deny you anything: and

on the other hand, liberal in asking, when they shew themselves your friends.

. . . When they die, they use divers manners of obsequies, and some they bury

with water and victuals at their heads: thinking that they shall have

(whereof) to eat: they have not nor do they use ceremonies of torches nor of

lamentation. In some other places, they use the most barbarous and inhuman

burial, which is that when a suffering or infirm (person) is as it were at the

last pass of death, his kinsmen carry him into a large forest, and attach one

of those nets, of theirs, in which they sleep, to two trees, and then put him

in it, and dance around him for a whole day: and when the night comes on they

place at his bolster, water with other victuals, so that he may be able to

subsist for four or six days: and then they leave him alone and return to the

village: and if the sick man helps himself, and eats, and drinks, and

survives, he returns to the village, and his (friends) receive him with

ceremony: but few are they who escape: without receiving any further visit

they die, and that is their sepulture: and they have many other customs which

for prolixity are not related. They use in their sicknesses various forms of

medicines, ^10 so different from ours that we marvelled how any one escaped:

for many times I saw that with a man sick of fever, when it heightened upon

him, they bathed him from head to foot with a large quantity of cold water:

then they lit a great fire around him, making him turn and turn again every

two hours, until they tired him and left him to sleep, and many were (thus)

cured: with this they make use of dieting, for they remain three days without

eating, and also of blood-letting, but not from the arm, only from the thighs

and the loins and the calf of the leg: also they provoke vomiting with their

herbs which are put into the mouth: and they use many other remedies which it

would be long to relate: they are much vitiated in the phlegm and in the blood

because of their food which consists chiefly of roots of herbs, and fruits and

fish: they have no seed of wheat nor other grain: and for their ordinary use

and feeding, they have a root of a tree, from which they make flour, tolerably

good, and they call it Iuca, and another which they call Cazabi, and another

Ignami: they eat little flesh except human flesh: for your Magnificence must

know that herein they are so inhuman that they outdo every custom (even) of

beasts; for they eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture, as well

females as males with so much savagery, that (merely) to relate it appears a

horrible thing: how much more so to see it, as, infinite times and in many

places, it was my hap to see it: and they wondered to hear us say that we did

not eat our enemies: and this your Magnificence may take for certain, that

their other barbarous customs are such that expression is too weak for the

reality: and as in these four voyages I have seen so many things diverse from

our customs, I prepared to write a common-place-book which I name Le quattro

Giornate: in which I have set down the greater part of the things which I saw,

sufficiently in detail, so far as my feeble wit has allowed me: which I have

not yet published, because I have so ill a taste for my own things that I do

not relish those which I have written, notwithstanding that many encourage me

to publish it: therein everything will be seen in detail: so that I shall not

enlarge further in this chapter: as in the course of the letter we shall come

to many other things which are particular: let this suffice for the general.

At this beginning, we saw nothing in the land of much profit, except some show

of gold: I believe the cause of it was that we did not know the language: but

in so far as concerns the situation and condition of the land, it could not be

better: we decided to leave that place, and to go further on, continuously

coasting the shore: upon which we made frequent descents, and held converse

with a great number of people: and at the end of some days we went into a

harbour where we underwent very great danger: and it pleased the Holy Ghost to

save us: and it was in this wise. We landed in a harbour, where we found a

village built like Venice upon the water: there were about 44 large dwellings

in the form of huts erected upon very thick piles, and they had their doors or

entrances in the style of drawbridges: and from each house one could pass

through all, by means of the drawbridges which stretched from house to house:

and when the people thereof had seen us, they appeared to be afraid of us, and

immediately drew up all the bridges: and while we were looking at this strange

action, we saw coming across the sea about 22 canoes, which are a kind of

boats of theirs, constructed from a single tree: which came towards our boats,

as they had been surprised by our appearance and clothes, and kept wide of us:

and thus remaining, we made signals to them that they should approach us,

encouraging them will every token of friendliness: and seeing that they did

not come, we went to them, and they did not stay for us, but made to the land,

and, by signs, told us to wait, and that they should soon return: and they

went to a hill in the background, and did not delay long: when they returned,

they led with them 16 of their girls, and entered with these into their

canoes, and came to the boats: and in each boat they put 4 of the girls. That

we marvelled at this behavior your Magnificence can imagine how much, and they

placed themselves with their canoes among our boats, coming to speak with us:

insomuch that we deemed it a mark of friendliness: and while thus engaged, we

beheld a great number of people advance swimming towards us across the sea,

who came from the houses: and as they were drawing near to us without any

apprehension: just then there appeared at the doors of the houses certain old

women, uttering very loud cries and tearing their hair to exhibit grief:

whereby they made us suspicious, and we each betook ourselves to arms: and

instantly the girls whom we had in the boats, threw themselves into the sea,

and the men of the canoes drew away from us, and began with their bows to

shoot arrows at us: and those who were swimming each carried a lance held, as

covertly as they could, beneath the water: so that, recognizing the treachery,

we engaged with them, not merely to defend ourselves, but to attack them

vigorously, and we overturned with our boats many of their almadie or canoes,

for so they call them, we made a slaughter (of them), and they all flung

themselves into the water to swim, leaving their canoes abandoned, with

considerable loss on their side, they went swimming away to the shore: there

died of them about 15 or 20, and many were left wounded: and of ours 5 were

wounded, and all, by the grace of God, escaped (death): we captured two of the

girls and two men: and we proceeded to their houses, and entered therein, and

in them all we found nothing else than two old women and a sick man: we took

away from them many things, but of small value: and we would not burn their

houses, because it seemed to us (as though that would be) a burden upon our

conscience: and we returned to our boats with five prisoners: and betook

ourselves to the ships, and put a pair of irons on the feet of each of the

captives, except the little girls: and when the night came on, the two girls

and one of the men fled away in the most subtle manner possible: and next day

we decided to quit that harbour and go further onwards: we proceeded

continuously skirting the coast, (until) we had sight of another tribe distant

perhaps some 80 leagues from the former tribe: and we found them very

different in speech and customs: we resolved to cast anchor, and went ashore

with the boats, and we saw on the beach a great number of people amounting

probably to 4000 souls: and when we had reached the shore, they did not stay

for us, but betook themselves to flight through the forests, abandoning their

things: we jumped on land, and took a pathway that led to the forest: and at

the distance of a bow-shot we found their tents, where they had made very

large fires, and two (of them) were cooking their victuals, and roasting

several animals, and fish of many kinds: where we saw that they were roasting

a certain animal which seemed to be a serpent, save that it had not wings, and

was in its appearance so loathsome that we marvelled much at its savageness:

Thus went we on through their houses, or rather tents, and found many of those

serpents alive, and they were tied by the feet and had a cord around their

snouts, so that they could not open their mouths, as is done (in Europe) with

mastiff-dogs so that they may not bite: they were of such savage aspect that

none of us dared to take one away, thinking that they were poisonous: they are

of the bigness of a kid, and in length an ell and a half: ^11 their feet are

long and thick, and armed with big claws: they have a hard skin, and are of

various colours: they have the muzzle and face of a serpent: and from their

snouts there rises a crest like a saw which extends along the middle of the

back as far as the tip of the tail: in fine we deemed them to be serpents and

venomous, and (nevertheless, those people) ate them: we found that they made

bread out of little fishes which they took from the sea, first boiling them,

(then) pounding them, and making thereof a paste, or bread, and they baked

them on the embers: thus did they eat them: we tried it, and found that it was

good: they had so many other kinds of eatables, and especially of fruits and

roots, that it would be a large matter to describe them in detail: and seeing

that the people did not return, we decided not to touch nor take away anything

of theirs, so as better to reassure them: and we left in the tents for them

many of our things, placed where they should see them, and returned by night

to our ships: and the next day, when it was light, we saw on the beach an

infinite number of people: and we landed: and although they appeared timorous

towards us, they took courage nevertheless to hold converse with us, giving us

whatever we asked of them: and shewing themselves very friendly towards us,

they told us that those were their dwellings, and that they had come hither

for the purpose of fishing: and they begged that we would visit their

dwellings and villages, because they desired to receive us as friends: and

they engaged in such friendship because of the two captured men whom we had

with us, as these were their enemies: insomuch that, in view of such

importunity on their part, holding a council, we determined that 28 of us

Christians in good array should go with them, and in the firm resolve to die

if it should be necessary: and after we had been here some three days, we went

with them inland: and at three leagues from the coast we came to a village of

many people and few houses, for there were no more than nine (of these): where

we were received with such and so many barbarous ceremonies that the pen

suffices not to write them down: for there were dances, and songs, and

lamentations mingled with rejoicing, and great quantities of food: and here we

remained the night: . . . and after having been here that night and half the

next day, so great was the number of people who came wondering to behold us

that they were beyond counting: and the most aged begged us to go with them to

other villages which were further inland, making display of doing us the

greatest honour: wherefore we decided to go: and it would be impossible to

tell you how much honour they did us: and we went to several villages, so that

we were nine days journeying, so that our Christians who had remained with the

ships were already apprehensive concerning us: and when we were about 18

leagues in the interior of the land, we resolved to return to the ships: and

on our way back, such was the number of people, as well men as women, that

came with us as far as the sea, that it was a wondrous thing: and if any of us

became weary of the march, they carried us in their nets very refreshingly:

and in crossing the rivers, which are many and very large, they passed us over

by skilful means so securely that we ran no danger whatever, and many of them

came laden with the things which they had given us, which consisted in their

sleeping-nets, and very rich feathers, many bows and arrows, innumerable

popinjays of divers colours: and others brought with them loads of their

household goods, and of animals: but a greater marvel will I tell you, that,

when we had to cross a river, he deemed himself lucky who was able to carry us

on his back: and when we reached the sea, our boats having arrived, we entered

into them: and so great was the struggle which they made to get into our

boats, and to come to see our ships, that we marvelled (thereat): and in our

boats we took as many of them as we could, and made our way to the ships, and

so many (others) came swimming that we found ourselves embarrassed in seeing

so many people in the ships, for there were over a thousand persons all naked

and unarmed: they were amazed by our (nautical) gear and contrivances, and the

size of the ships: and with them there occurred to us a very laughable affair,

which was that we decided to fire off some of our great guns, and when the

explosion took place, most of them through fear cast themselves (into the sea)

to swim, not otherwise than frogs on the margins of a pond, when they see

something that frightens them, will jump into the water, just so did those

people: and those who remained in the ships were so terrified that we

regretted our action: however we reassured them by telling them that with

those arms we slew our enemies: and when they had amused themselves in the

ships the whole day, we told them to go away because we desired to depart that

night, and so separating from us with much friendship and love, they went away

to land. Amongst that people and in their land, I knew and beheld so many of

their customs and ways of living, that I do not care to enlarge upon them: for

Your Magnificence must know that in each of my voyages I have noted the most

wonderful things, and I have indited it all in a volume after the manner of a

geography: and I entitle it Le Quattro Giornate: in which work the things are

comprised in detail, and as yet there is no copy of it given out, as it is

necessary for me to revise it. This land is very populous, and full of

inhabitants, and of numberless rivers, (and) animals: few (of which) resemble

ours, excepting lions, panthers, stags, pigs, goats, and deer: and even these

have some dissimilarities of form: they have no horses nor mules, nor, saving

your reverence, asses nor dogs, nor any kind of sheep or oxen: but so numerous

are the other animals which they have, and all are savage, and of none do they

make use for their service, that they could not be counted. What shall we say

of others (such as) birds? which are so numerous, and of so many kinds, and of

such various-coloured plumages, that it is a marvel to behold them. The soil

is very pleasant and fruitful, full of immense woods and forests: and it is

always green, for the foliage never drops off. The fruits are so many that

they are numberless and entirely different from ours. This land is within the

torrid zone, close to or just under the parallel described by the Tropic of

Cancer: where the pole of the horizon has an elevation of 23 degrees, at the

extremity of the second climate. ^12 Many tribes came to see us, and wondered

at our faces and our whiteness: and they asked us whence we came: and we gave

them to understand that we had come from heaven, and that we were going to see

the world, and they believed it. In this land we placed baptismal fonts, and

an infinite (number of) people were baptised, and they called us in their

language Carabi, which means men of great wisdom. We took our dhparture from

that port: and the province is called Lariab: and we navigated along the

coast, always in sight of land, until we had run 870 leagues of it, still

going in the direction of the maestrale (north-west) making in our course many

halts, and holding intercourse with many peoples: and in several places we

obtained gold by barter but not much in quantity, for we had done enough in

discovering the land and learning that they had gold. We had now been thirteen

months on the voyage: and the vessels and the tackling were already much

damaged, and the men worn out by fatigue: we decided by general council to

haul our ships on land and examine them for the purpose of stanching leaks, as

they made much water, and of caulking and tarring them afresh, and (then)

returning towards Spain: and when we came to this determination, we were close

to a harbour the best in the world: into which we entered with our vessels:

where we found an immense number of people: who received us with much

friendliness: and on the shore we made a bastion ^13 with our boats and with

barrels and casks, and our artillery, which commanded every point: and our

ships having been unloaded and lightened, we drew them upon land, and repaired

them in everything that was needful: and the land's people gave us very great

assistance: and continually furnished us with their victuals: so that in this

port we tasted little of our own, which suited our game well: for the stock of

provisions which we had for our return-passage was little and of sorry kind:

where (i.e., there) we remained 37 days: and went many times to their

villages: where they paid us the greatest honour: and (now) desiring to depart

upon our voyage, they made complaint to us how at certain times of the year

there came from over the sea to this their land, a race of people very cruel,

and enemies of theirs: and (who) by means of treachery or of violence slew

many of them, and ate them: and some they made captives, and carried them away

to their houses, or country: and how they could scarcely contrive to defend

themselves from them, making signs to us that (those) were an island-people

and lived out in the sea about a hundred leagues away: and so piteously did

they tell us this that we believed them: and we promised to avenge them of so

much wrong: and they remained overjoyed herewith: and many of them offered to

come along with us, but we did not wish to take them for many reasons, save

that we took seven of them, on condition that they should come (i.e., return

home) afterwards in (their own) canoes because we did not desire to be obliged

to take them back to their country: and they were contented: and so we

departed from those people, leaving them very friendly towards us: and having

repaired our ships, and sailing for seven days out to sea between northeast

and east: and at the end of the seven days we came upon the islands, which

were many, some (of them) inhabited, and others deserted: and we anchored at

one of them: where we saw a numerous people who called it Iti: and having

manned our boats with strong crews, and (taken ammunition for) three cannon -

shots in each, we made for land: where we found (assembled) about 400 men, and

many women, and all naked like the former (peoples). They were of good bodily

presence, and seemed right warlike men: for they were armed with their

weapons, which are bows, arrows, and lances: and most of them had square

wooden targets: and bore them in such wise that they did not impede the

drawing of the bow: and when we had come with our boats to about a bowshot of

the land, they all sprang into the water to shoot their arrows at us and to

prevent us from leaping upon shore: and they all had their bodies painted of

various colours, and (were) plumed with feathers: and the interpreters who

were with us told us that when (those) displayed themselves so painted and

plumed, it was to betoken that they wanted to fight: and so much did they

persist in preventing us from landing, that we were compelled to play with our

artillery: and when they heard the explosion, and saw one of them fall dead,

they all drew back to the land: wherefore, forming our council, we resolved

that 42 of our men should spring on shore, and, if they waited for us, fight

them: thus having leaped to land with our weapons, they advanced towards us,

and we fought for about an hour, for we had but little advantage of them,

except that our arbalasters and gunners killed some of them, and they wounded

certain of our men: and this was because they did not stand to receive us

within reach of lance-thrust or sword-blow: and so much vigour did we put

forth at last, that we came to sword-play, and when they tasted our weapons,

they betook themselves to flight through the mountains and the forests, and

left us conquerors of the field with many of them dead and a good number

wounded: and for that day we' took no other pains to pursue them, because we

were very weary, and we returned to our ships, with so much gladness on the

part of the seven men who had come with us that they could not contain

themselves (for joy): and when the next day arrived, we beheld coming across

the land a great number of people, with signals of battle, continually

sounding horns, and various other instruments which they use in their wars:

and all (of them) painted and feathered, so that it was a very strange sight

to behold them: wherefore all the ships held council, and it was resolved that

since this people desired hostility with us, we should proceed to encounter

them and try by every means to make them friends: in case they would not have

our friendship, that we should treat them as foes, and so many of them as we

might be able to capture should all be our slaves: and having armed ourselves

as best we could, we advanced towards the shore, and they sought not to hinder

us from landing, I believe from fear of the cannons: and we jumped on land, 57

men in four squadrons, each one (consisting of) a captain and his company: and

we came to blows with them: and after a long battle (in which) many of them

(were) slain, we put them to flight, and pursued them to a village, having

made about 250 of them captives, and we burnt the village, and returned to our

ships with victory and 250 prisoners, leaving many of them dead and wounded,

and of ours there were no more than one killed and 22 wounded, who all escaped

(i.e., recovered), God be thanked. We arranged our departure, and seven men,

of whom five were wounded, took an island-canoe, and with seven prisoners that

we gave them, four women and three men, returned to their (own) country full

of gladness, wondering at our strength: and we thereon made sail for Spain

with 222 captive slaves: and reached the port of Calis (Cadiz) on the 15th day

of October, 1498, where we were well received and sold our slaves. Such is

what befell me, most noteworthy, in this my first voyage.

 

[Footnote 1: That is, which are situate at 27 1/2 degrees north latitude.]

 

[Footnote 2: South-south-west. It is to be remarked that Vespucci always uses

the word wind to signify the course in which it blows, not the quarter from

which it rises.]

 

[Footnote 3: West and a quarter by south-west.]

 

[Footnote 4: This phrase is merely equivalent to a repetition of from the

Canaries, these islands having been already designated the extreme western

limit of inhabited land.]

 

[Footnote 5: That is, 16 degrees north latitude.]

 

[Footnote 6: North-west.]

 

[Footnote 7: Mantenimenti. The word "all" (tucte) is feminine, and probably

refers only to the women.]

 

[Footnote 8: He means that they have no sounds in their language unknown to

European organs of speech, all being either palatals or dentals of labials.]

 

[Footnote 9: I have translated "et non si da loro molto" as "it is not much of

a boon to them,." but may be "it matters not much to them."]

 

[Footnote 10: That is, "medical treatment."]

 

[Footnote 11: This animal was the iguana.]

 

[Footnote 12: That is, 23 degrees north latitude.]

 

[Footnote 13: Fort or barricade.]

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